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We assessed the incidence of hip fracture and ecological correlates in residents of 14 communities in six countries of Southern Europe. Hip fracture cases were recorded prospectively in defined catchment areas over a 1-year interval. A retrospective questionnaire was used to assess ecological differences between communities. During a 1-year period of(More)
The effect of femoral bone mineral density (BMD) and several parameters of femoral neck geometry (hip axis length, neck–shaft angle and mean femoral neck width) on hip fracture risk in a Spanish population was assessed in a cross-sectional study. All parameters were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were 411 patients (116 men, 295 women;(More)
The aim of this study was to generate standard curves for bone mineral density (BMD) in a Spanish population using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), at both lumbar spine and femoral neck sites. The total sample size was 2442 subjects of both sexes aged 20–80 years, stratified according to survival rates, demographic distribution by local regions and(More)
The effect of femoral bone mineral density (BMD) and several parameters of femoral neck geometry (hip axis length, neck-shaft angle and mean femoral neck width) on hip fracture risk in a Spanish population was assessed in a cross-sectional study. All parameters were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were 411 patients (116 men, 295 women;(More)
We have measured bone mineral density (BMD) using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the spine and hip, spinal quantitative computed tomography (QCTspi), and peripheral radial quantitative computed tomography (pQCTrad) in 334 spine and 51 hip fracture patients. The standardized hip and spine BMD for each patient was calculated and compared with the combined(More)
An outbreak of food poisoning involving most autonomous Spanish communities was detected in the first half of 1994. The causative food was infant formula milk contaminated by lactose-fermentingSalmonella virchow. It was not possible to isolate the causative strain from the manufacturer's facilities. During the same period of time, there was a significant(More)
Up to now it has not been possible to reliably cross-calibrate dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) densitometry equipment made by different manufacturers so that a measurement made on an individual subject can be expressed in the units used with a different type of machine. Manufacturers have adopted various procedures for edge detection and calibration,(More)
The aims of this study were to identify risk factors for hip fracture in men aged 50 years or more. We identified 730 men with hip fracture from 14 centers from Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Greece and Turkey during the course of a prospective study of hip fracture incidence and 1132 age-stratified controls selected from the neighborhood or population(More)
This study describes the epidemiological impact of meningococcal C conjugate vaccine on age groups targeted by this vaccination programme in Spain, and estimates high short-term vaccine effectiveness values under field conditions in the 4 years following its introduction. Meningococcal C conjugate vaccine has led to a substantial reduction in incidence of(More)
Between 1999 and 2004, the European Union Invasive Bacterial Infections Surveillance Network (EU-IBIS) received c. 50,000 reports of meningococcal disease from 27 participating countries. Analysis has demonstrated a major decline in the incidence of invasive disease in those countries that have introduced routine vaccination against serogroup C infection.(More)