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An outbreak of food poisoning involving most autonomous Spanish communities was detected in the first half of 1994. The causative food was infant formula milk contaminated by lactose-fermenting Salmonella virchow. It was not possible to isolate the causative strain from the manufacturer's facilities. During the same period of time, there was a significant(More)
This study describes the epidemiological impact of meningococcal C conjugate vaccine on age groups targeted by this vaccination programme in Spain, and estimates high short-term vaccine effectiveness values under field conditions in the 4 years following its introduction. Meningococcal C conjugate vaccine has led to a substantial reduction in incidence of(More)
The effect of femoral bone mineral density (BMD) and several parameters of femoral neck geometry (hip axis length, neck-shaft angle and mean femoral neck width) on hip fracture risk in a Spanish population was assessed in a cross-sectional study. All parameters were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were 411 patients (116 men, 295 women;(More)
Between 1999 and 2004, the European Union Invasive Bacterial Infections Surveillance Network (EU-IBIS) received c. 50,000 reports of meningococcal disease from 27 participating countries. Analysis has demonstrated a major decline in the incidence of invasive disease in those countries that have introduced routine vaccination against serogroup C infection.(More)
The new meningococcal C conjugate vaccine became available in Spain and was included in the infant vaccination schedule in 2000. A catch-up campaign was carried out in children under six years of age. As a consequence, the incidence of meningococcal disease caused by serogroup C has fallen sharply during the last three epidemiological years in Spain. The(More)
Spain's Salmonella surveillance system backed by regionally-based epidemiologists around the country made it possible to detect and halt the spread of a foodborne salmonellosis outbreak due to powdered infant formula contaminated with a lactose-fermenting strain of Salmonella virchow. Forty-eight cases involving children, mostly under 7 months old, were(More)
Before 1990, outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) were uncommon (1); since then, more than 10 outbreaks have been reported, all in hospitals and prisons in the eastern United States (2-7). Persons traditionally considered at risk for MDRTB (foreign-born TB patients and those inadequately treated for TB) have not been associated with these(More)
PURPOSE Meningococcal C conjugate vaccine was included in December 2000 in the Spanish childhood vaccination at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. In 2006, routine vaccination was modified to two doses at 2 and 4-6 months and a booster dose during the second year of age. Additionally, successive catch-up campaigns were launched to extend protection to older groups.(More)
  Girls and boys enter school roughly equal in measured ability. They start off alike in mathematics and science performance and interest in school, and appear to do equally well in both subjects in elementary school. As girls progress from middle school into high school and college, they become a steadily decreasing segment of the " scientific and(More)