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Interleukin-10 (IL-10)-secreting T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells are defined by their specific cytokine production profile, which includes the secretion of high levels of IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta(TGF-beta), and by their ability to suppress antigen-specific effector T-cell responses via a cytokine-dependent mechanism. In contrast to the(More)
Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) is currently thought to be the most specific marker for naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(+) T regulatory cells (nTregs). In mice, expression of FoxP3 is strictly correlated with regulatory activity, whereas increasing evidence suggests that in humans, activated T effector cells (Teffs) may also express FOXP3. In order to better define(More)
Suppression by T regulatory (Tr) cells is essential for induction of tolerance. Many types of Tr cells have been described in a number of systems, and their biology has been the subject of intensive investigation. Although many aspects of the mechanisms by which these cells exert their effects remain to be elucidated, it is well established that Tr cells(More)
The autoimmune disease immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) is caused by mutations in the forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3) gene. In the mouse model of FOXP3 deficiency, the lack of CD4+ CD25+ Tregs is responsible for lethal autoimmunity, indicating that FOXP3 is required for the differentiation of this Treg subset. We show(More)
BACKGROUND The hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by infections of the lung and skin, elevated serum IgE, and involvement of the soft and bony tissues. Recently, HIES has been associated with heterozygous dominant-negative mutations in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and severe reductions of(More)
SUMMARY T-regulatory cells (Tregs) have a fundamental role in the establishment and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. There is now compelling evidence that deficits in the numbers and/or function of different types of Tregs can lead to autoimmunity, allergy, and graft rejection, whereas an over-abundance of Tregs can inhibit anti-tumor and anti-pathogen(More)
Little is known about the molecules that control the development and function of CD4+ CD25+ Tregs. Recently, it was shown that the transcription factor FOXP3 is necessary and sufficient for the generation of CD4+ CD25+ Tregs in mice. We investigated the capacity of FOXP3 to drive the generation of suppressive CD4+ CD25+ Tregs in humans. Surprisingly,(More)
CD4(+) type 1 T regulatory (Tr1) cells are induced in the periphery and have a pivotal role in promoting and maintaining tolerance. The absence of surface markers that uniquely identify Tr1 cells has limited their study and clinical applications. By gene expression profiling of human Tr1 cell clones, we identified the surface markers CD49b and lymphocyte(More)
Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is a rare monogenic primary immunodeficiency (PID) due to mutations of FOXP3, a key transcription factor for naturally occurring (n) regulatory T (Treg) cells. The dysfunction of Treg cells is the main pathogenic event leading to the multi-organ autoimmunity that characterizes(More)
T regulatory Type 1 (Tr1) cells are adaptive T regulatory cells characterized by the ability to secrete high levels of IL-10 and minimal amounts of IL-4 and IL-17. Recently, CD49b and LAG-3 have been identified as Tr1-cell-specific biomarkers in mice and humans. Tr1 cells suppress T-cell- and antigen-presenting cell- (APC) responses primarily via the(More)