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Behavior is an important mechanism of evolution and it is paid for through energy expenditure. Nevertheless, field biologists can rarely observe animals for more than a fraction of their daily activities and attempts to quantify behavior for modeling ecological processes often exclude cryptic yet important behavioral events. Over the past few years, an(More)
Co-citation (number of nodes linking to both of a given pair of nodes) is often used heuristically to judge similarity between nodes in a complex network. We investigate the relation between node similarity and co-citation in the context of the Spatial Preferred Attachment (SPA) model. The SPA model is a spatial model, where nodes live in a metric space,(More)
The spatial preferred attachment (SPA) model is a model for networked information spaces such as domains of the World Wide Web, citation graphs, and on-line social networks. It uses a metric space to model the hidden attributes of the vertices. Thus, vertices are elements of a metric space, and link formation depends on the metric distance between vertices.(More)
BACKGROUND In applications of supervised statistical learning in the biomedical field it is necessary to assess the prediction error of the respective prediction rules. Often, data preparation steps are performed on the dataset-in its entirety-before training/test set based prediction error estimation by cross-validation (CV)-an approach referred to as(More)
BACKGROUND The goal of medical research is to develop interventions that are in some sense superior, with respect to patient outcome, to interventions currently in use. Similarly, the goal of research in methodological computational statistics is to develop data analysis tools that are themselves superior to the existing tools. The methodology of the(More)
In this paper, a spatial preferential attachment model for complex networks in which there is non-uniform distribution of the nodes in the metric space is studied. In this model, the metric layout represents hidden information about the similarity and community structure of the nodes. It is found that, for density functions that are locally constant, the(More)
BACKGROUND Biomarkers providing evidence for patient-treatment interaction are key in the development and practice of personalized medicine. Knowledge that a patient with a specific feature - as demonstrated through a biomarker - would have an advantage under a given treatment vs. a competing treatment can aid immensely in medical decision-making.(More)
The spatial preferential attachment (SPA) is a model for complex networks. In the SPA model, nodes are embedded in a metric space, and each node has a sphere of influence whose size increases if the node gains an in-link, and otherwise decreases with time. In this paper, we study the behaviour of the SPA model when the distribution of the nodes is(More)
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