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The Piwi proteins of the Argonaute superfamily are required for normal germline development in Drosophila, zebrafish, and mice and associate with 24-30 nucleotide RNAs termed piRNAs. We identify a class of 21 nucleotide RNAs, previously named 21U-RNAs, as the piRNAs of C. elegans. Piwi and piRNA expression is restricted to the male and female germline and(More)
Oestrogen receptor-α (ER) is the defining and driving transcription factor in the majority of breast cancers and its target genes dictate cell growth and endocrine response, yet genomic understanding of ER function has been restricted to model systems. Here we map genome-wide ER-binding events, by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput(More)
The androgen receptor (AR) is a key regulator of prostate growth and the principal drug target for the treatment of prostate cancer. Previous studies have mapped AR targets and identified some candidates which may contribute to cancer progression, but did not characterize AR biology in an integrated manner. In this study, we took an interdisciplinary(More)
High-throughput sequencing technology has become popular and widely used to study protein and DNA interactions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, followed by sequencing of the resulting samples, produces large amounts of data that can be used to map genomic features such as transcription factor binding sites and histone modifications. Our proposed statistical(More)
Retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RAR alpha) is a known estrogen target gene in breast cancer cells. The consequence of RAR alpha induction by estrogen was previously unknown. We now show that RAR alpha is required for efficient estrogen receptor-alpha (ER)-mediated transcription and cell proliferation. RAR alpha can interact with ER-binding sites, but this(More)
Estrogen receptor (ESR1) drives growth in the majority of human breast cancers by binding to regulatory elements and inducing transcription events that promote tumor growth. Differences in enhancer occupancy by ESR1 contribute to the diverse expression profiles and clinical outcome observed in breast cancer patients. GATA3 is an ESR1-cooperating(More)
The expansion of repressive epigenetic marks has been implicated in heterochromatin formation during embryonic development, but the general applicability of this mechanism is unclear. Here we show that nuclear rearrangement of repressive histone marks H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 into nonoverlapping structural layers characterizes senescence-associated(More)
MOTIVATION Identification of genomic regions of interest in ChIP-seq data, commonly referred to as peak-calling, aims to find the locations of transcription factor binding sites, modified histones or nucleosomes. The BayesPeak algorithm was developed to model the data structure using Bayesian statistical techniques and was shown to be a reliable method, but(More)
With the advent of ChIP-seq multiplexing technologies and the subsequent increase in ChIP-seq throughput, the development of working standards for the quality assessment of ChIP-seq studies has received significant attention. The ENCODE consortium's large scale analysis of transcription factor binding and epigenetic marks as well as concordant work on(More)