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Adult female Simulium damnosum s.l. flies obtained in nine countries of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme were examined for 14 morphological characters with the aim of selecting specific characters to identify the main species that form the complex. Two approaches were used, the first involved discriminant function analysis of the species groups using(More)
Simulium damnosum s.l., the most important vector of onchocerciasis in Africa, is a complex of sibling species that have been described on the basis of differences in their larval polytene chromosomes. These (cyto) species differ in their geographical distributions, ecologies and epidemiological roles. In Ghana, distributional changes have been recorded as(More)
Ghana is renowned for its sibling species diversity of the Simulium damnosum complex, vectors of Onchocerca volvulus. Detailed entomological knowledge becomes a priority as onchocerciasis control policy has shifted from morbidity reduction to elimination of infection. To date, understanding of transmission dynamics of O. volvulus has been mainly based on S.(More)
BACKGROUND The World Health Organization (WHO) aims at eliminating onchocerciasis by 2020 in selected African countries. Current control focuses on community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI). In Ghana, persistent transmission has been reported despite long-term control. We present spatial and temporal patterns of onchocerciasis transmission in(More)
There is no published account which allows the morphological discrimination of microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus and M. ozzardi from each other. However, they occur together in parts of Brazil and Venezuela, and presumably there is always the possibility that migration could establish new sympatric populations in the future. The objective of this study(More)
Following studies on the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) by Simulium sanctipauli Vajime & Dunbar (Diptera, Simuliidae) in Upper Denkyira District in Ghana in 2001 and 2002 (Kutin et al., Med Vet Ent 18:167–173, 2004), further assessments were carried out in 2006 and 2013/2014 to determine whether transmission parameters had changed since(More)
Cytotaxonomic analysis of the polytene chromosomes from larvae of the Simulium damnosum Theobald complex from the island of Bioko in Equatorial Guinea is reported, and a new endemic cytoform is described. Chromosomally this cytoform is close to both S. squamosum (Enderlein) and S. yahense Vajime & Dunbar, but is not identical to either. However, it is(More)
Vector-biting behaviour is important for vector-borne disease (VBD) epidemiology. The proportion of blood meals taken on humans (the human blood index, HBI), is a component of the biting rate per vector on humans in VBD transmission models. Humans are the definitive host of Onchocerca volvulus, but the simuliid vectors feed on a range of animals and HBI is(More)
An understanding of the nature of the chromosomes of the filariae is expected to greatly assist the future interpretation of genome data. Filarial development is not eutelic, and there does not seem to be a fixed number of cell divisions in the way that there is in Caenorhabditis. It is not clear whether the chromosomes of the filariae have localized(More)
Human onchocerciasis is hyper-endemic in south-western Cameroon and the island of Bioko. The vector on the island is the endemic 'Bioko' form of Simulium yahense. On the mainland, S. damnosum s.s., S. squamosum and S. mengense are recorded around Mount Cameroon but their contribution to transmission in the area is unclear. As elimination of onchocerciasis,(More)