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Amongst all regions of the body, the craniocervical region is the one most frequently affected by dystonia. Whilst blepharospasm--involuntary bilateral eye closure--is produced by spasmodic contractions of the orbicularis oculi muscles, oromandibular dystonia may cause jaw closure with trismus and bruxism, or involuntary jaw opening or deviation,(More)
BACKGROUND Friedreich ataxia (FA), the most common hereditary ataxia, is caused by pathological expansion of GAA repeats in the first intron of the X25 gene on chromosome 9. Since the discovery of the gene, atypical features are increasingly recognized in individuals with FA, and up to 25% of patients with recessive or sporadic ataxia do not fulfill the(More)
OBJECTIVE Although gait ataxia is usually associated with cerebellar lesions, we review a less familiar cause. We present three patients with dorsal midbrain lesions and correlate these presentations with recent findings in the functional anatomy of the midbrain. CONCLUSION We suggest that these lesions involve a well-studied but generally unfamiliar area(More)
BACKGROUND Tremors are common clinical complaints among the elderly and non-specialist physicians frequently are challenged by the need to provide an accurate diagnosis of various tremor syndromes, particularly Parkinson's disease and essential tremor in their busy practices. OBJECTIVE We sought to develop an easy-to-use, mobile robust, accurate, and(More)
BACKGROUND Postural instability is often experienced in the late stages of PD and is a marker of disease progression. Little information is available on the role of visual inputs as an adaptive strategy to compensate for postural instability in PD. The purpose of this study was to determine visual dependency for postural control in early PD. METHODS(More)
Patients with early Parkinson's disease (PD) may not complain of gait difficulties but subtle gait abnormalities may be revealed as part of a "preclinical gait syndrome" when they are challenged by dual tasks. 21 early PD patients (n = 21, mean age 63.5 years, H&Y 1.62, disease duration <5 years, mean UPDRS-III 7.7) who did not have gait complaints were as(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) imposes a burden on those who care for the person afflicted. The objective of this study was to assess and analyze the main determinants of caregivers' burden, especially the nocturnal manifestations of PD. This multi-center, national, cross-sectional study included 89 patient-caregiver pairs. Caregiver self-assessments were(More)
Although the subspeciality of movement disorders was established in neurology more than 20 years ago, it is relatively new in Thailand, and while most physicians are generally aware of Parkinson's disease, they often are not familiar with dystonia. As one of the common movement disorders seen in general practice, a number of family and population studies(More)