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AIM Immunohistochemical analysis of protein expression is central to most clinical translational studies and defines patient treatment or selection criteria for novel drugs. Interobserver variation is rarely analysed despite recognition that this is a key area of potential inaccuracy. Therefore our aim was to examine observer variation and suggest the(More)
Molecular mechanisms underlying the development of androgen-insensitive prostate cancer (AIPC) are poorly understood. However, there is growing evidence that different molecular profiles may result in the development of AIPC. Cell line studies demonstrate that c-Jun and c-Fos, via formation of the transcription factor activated protein 1 (AP-1), activate(More)
The main cause of prostate cancer-related mortality is the development of hormone-refractory disease. Circulating serum levels of IL-6 are raised in hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients and evidence from cell line studies suggests that the IL-6R/JAK/STAT3 pathway may be involved in development of this disease. In the current study we investigate if(More)
Cell line studies demonstrate that the PI3K/Akt pathway is upregulated in hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) and can result in phosphorylation of the androgen receptor (AR). The current study therefore aims to establish if this has relevance to the development of clinical HRPC. Immunohistochemistry was employed to investigate the expression and(More)
COX2 and HER2 expression are associated with a poor prognosis in prostate cancer and HER2 has been linked to COX2 expression in colorectal cancer. The association between COX2 and HER2 expression was investigated in 117 patients with prostate cancer (89) or Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (28). Tissue was analysed for HER2 amplification by fluorescent in(More)
BACKGROUND Recent evidence has implicated the MAP kinase (MAPK) pathway with the development of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We have previously reported gene amplification of critical members of this pathway with the development of castrate-resistant disease. In addition, we have shown that rising Raf-1 expression, with the development of(More)
BACKGROUND Recent evidence has implicated the MAP kinase pathway with the development of androgen insensitive prostate cancer (AIPC). We have previously reported gene amplification of critical members of this pathway with the development of androgen insensitive disease. METHODS Protein expression of Raf-1 was analyzed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the role of androgen receptor (AR) gene amplification and aneusomy of the X chromosome in the development of antiandrogen-resistant prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS Twenty patients with prostate cancer resistant to androgen-deprivation therapy were selected for study. The records of patients with tumours before and after(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the role of selected downstream Bcl-2 family members (Bad, Bax, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) in the development of androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC), as androgen-deprivation therapy is the treatment of choice in advanced prostate cancer, yet patients generally relapse and progress to an AI state within 18-24 months. PATIENTS, MATERIALS(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that angiogenesis in prostate cancer is associated with tumour invasion and metastasis, and that this is mediated through increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. PATIENTS AND METHODS Angiogenesis was assessed in 105 patients with either prostate cancer (79) or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, 26) and these data(More)
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