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From worm to man, many odorant signals are perceived by the binding of volatile ligands to odorant receptors that belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. They couple to heterotrimeric G-proteins, most of which induce cAMP production. This second messenger then activates cyclic-nucleotide-gated ion channels to depolarize the olfactory(More)
Most cancer cells release heterogeneous populations of extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. In vitro experiments showed that EV uptake can lead to transfer of functional mRNA and altered cellular behavior. However, similar in vivo experiments remain challenging because cells that take up EVs cannot be discriminated(More)
Antibody single-chain Fv fragment (scFv) molecules that are specific for fluorescein have been engineered with a C-terminal cysteine for a directed immobilization on a flat gold surface. Individual scFv molecules can be identified by atomic force microscopy. For selected molecules the antigen binding forces are then determined by using a tip modified with(More)
Forced overexpression and/or downregulation of proteins regulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been reported to alter metastasis by changing migration and stem cell capacity of tumor cells. However, these manipulations artificially keep cells in fixed states, while in vivo cells may adapt transient and reversible states. Here, we have(More)
Odorant signals are detected by binding of odor molecules to odorant receptors. These belong to the G protein-coupled receptor family. They in turn couple to G proteins, most of which induce cAMP production. This second messenger activates ion channels to depolarize the olfactory sensory neuron, thus providing a signal for further neuronal processing.(More)
The appearance of serum antibodies binding to specific brain antigens was monitored in mice inoculated intracerebrally with a dermotropic or a neurotropic strain of vaccinia virus. Antibodies were measured with a binding assay using [125I]protein. A. Inoculation with the neurotropic strain caused an induction of serum antibodies binding to the myelin(More)
After intracranial replication of a neurotropic strain of vaccinia in mouse brain, analysis of the purified virus preparation reveals the presence of at least one host protein on the virus which was identified as the myelin basic protein. Vaccinia virus Elstree, a dermotropic virus may substitute for complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in inducing experimental(More)