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RATIONALE Two forms of the IFN-gamma release assay (IFNGRA) to detect tuberculosis infection are available, but neither has been evaluated in comparable HIV-infected and uninfected persons in a high tuberculosis incidence environment. OBJECTIVE To compare the ability of the T-SPOT.TB (Oxford Immunotec, Abingdon, UK), QuantiFERON-TB Gold (Cellestis,(More)
Increased access to combination antiretroviral therapy in areas co-endemic for tuberculosis (TB) and HIV-1 infection is associated with an increased incidence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) whose cause is poorly understood. A case-control analysis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in TB-IRIS patients sampled at clinical(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of asymptomatic tuberculosis (TB) in recently diagnosed HIV-1-infected persons attending pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics is not well described. In addition, it is unclear if the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in these patients clearly represents an early asymptomatic phase leading to progressive disease or(More)
The sensitivity of the tuberculin skin test is impaired in HIV-1-infected persons. Enzyme-linked immunospot-based detection of immune sensitisation may be less affected. Furthermore, the quantitative response can be related to the CD4 count, potentially improving specificity for active disease. The T-SPOT.TB assay was performed on HIV-1-infected(More)
BACKGROUND The interleukin 10 (IL-10) family comprises cytokines structurally related to IL-10 that share signaling receptors that have conserved signaling cascades. The immunopathogenesis of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis remains incompletely understood. We(More)
We have described a clinical relationship between HIV-Tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (TB-IRIS) and anti-tubercular drug resistance. Here we studied the immune response of TB-IRIS patients from whom a drug-resistant (n = 11) or drug-susceptible (n = 25) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strain was isolated after presenting with(More)
BACKGROUND The increased susceptibility to latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) of HIV-1-infected persons represents a challenge in TB epidemic control. However few studies have evaluated LTBI predictors in a generalized HIV/TB epidemic setting. METHODS The study recruited 335 HIV-infected participants from Khayelitsha, Cape Town between February 2008 and(More)
Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) frequently complicates combined antiretroviral therapy and antituberculosis therapy in HIV-1-coinfected tuberculosis patients. The immunopathological mechanisms underlying TB-IRIS are incompletely defined, and improved understanding is required to derive new treatments and to(More)
Studies on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) antigens are of interest in order to improve vaccine efficacy and to define biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. The methodologies used for these investigations differ greatly between laboratories and discordant results are common. The IFN-gamma response to two well characterized MTB antigens ESAT-6(More)