Ronita L. Cromwell

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1. In this study we have tested the hypothesis that the mechanisms controlling stabilization of the head-neck motor system can vary with both the frequency and spatial orientation of an externally applied perturbation. Angular velocity of the head with respect to the trunk (neck) and myoelectric activity of two neck muscles (semispinalis capitis and(More)
OBJECTIVE This article describes a series of studies designed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Adult Sensory Profile. METHOD Expert judges evaluated the construct validity of the items. Coefficient alpha, factor analysis, and correlations of items with subscales determined item reliability, using data from 615 adult sensory profiles. A(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Head stabilization in space provides a stable reference frame for visual and vestibular systems during locomotor tasks. The purpose of the present study was to examine upper body movement patterns used to maintain head stability in response to the increased challenge of stair ambulation. METHOD A repeated-measures study design was(More)
BACKGROUND Age-related declines in balance and walking ability are major risk factors for falls. Older adults reduce the dynamic components of walking in an effort to achieve a more stable walking pattern. Tae Kwon Do is an exercise that trains dynamic components of balance and walking that diminish with age. METHODS Twenty participants from a Tae Kwon Do(More)
Sex and gender differences have long been a research topic of interest, yet few studies have explored the specific differences in neurological responses between men and women during and after spaceflight. Knowledge in this field is limited due to the significant disproportion of sexes enrolled in the astronaut corps. Research indicates that general(More)
BACKGROUND Maintaining balance during dynamic activities is essential for preventing falls in older adults. Head stabilization contributes to dynamic balance, especially during the functional task of walking. Head stability and the role of vision in this process have not been studied during walking in older adults. METHODS Seventeen older adults (76.2 +/-(More)
STUDY DESIGN Descriptive study examining kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) patterns of the upper body during walking. OBJECTIVE To examine trunk, neck, and head movements to determine a mechanism for upper body stabilization during walking. BACKGROUND Dynamic balance of the upper body during walking provides a stable base for function of sensory(More)
Age-related adaptations during walking create a more stable walking pattern, which is less effective for forward progression and might be related to balance deficiencies. This study determined the relationship between walking stability and measures of balance in older adults. Seventeen older and 20 young adults performed the Berg Balance Test (BBT) and(More)
Changes in body orientation with respect to space during incline walking can alter vestibular information requiring a different solution to the problem of head stabilization. Eleven young adults walked along a level walkway, and ascended and descended an inclined surface. Head, neck and trunk angular positions in space were collected. Changes in the(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine adaptations in head stability resulting from altered gaze control and vision during over-ground walking. Using over-ground walking permitted adaptations in walking velocity and cadence that are otherwise not possible during treadmill walking or walking-in-place. Gaze control and vision were manipulated by having 20(More)