Learn More
Patterning along the anterior-posterior axis takes place during gastrulation and early neurulation. Homeobox genes like Otx-2 and members of the Hox family have been implicated in this process. The caudal genes in Drosophila and C. elegans have been shown to determine posterior fates. In vertebrates, the caudal genes begin their expression during(More)
Specific signaling molecules play a pivotal role in the induction and specification of tissues during early vertebrate embryogenesis. BMP-4 specifies ventral mesoderm differentiation and inhibits neural induction in Xenopus, whereas three molecules secreted from the organizer, noggin, follistatin and chordin dorsalize mesoderm and promote neural induction.(More)
The interaction of fenfluramine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) with the platelet plasma membrane serotonin transporter and the vesicular amine transporter were studied using both transport and binding measurements. Fenfluramine is apparently a substrate for the plasma membrane transporter, and consequently inhibits(More)
Full-field optical coherence microscopy (FFOCM) utilizes coherence gating to obtain high-resolution optical sections in thick tissues. FFOCM is an attractive technology for endoscopic microscopy at the cellular level since it does not require a high NA objective lens or beam scanning and is therefore particularly amenable to miniaturization. In this(More)
Vesicular neurotransmitter transporters function in synaptic vesicles and other subcellular organelles and they were thought to be involved only in neurotransmitter storage. Several findings have led us to test novel aspects of their function. Cells expressing a c-DNA coding for one of the rat monoamine transporters (VMAT1) become resistant to the(More)
Patterning of the marginal zone in the Xenopus embryo has been attributed to interactions between dorsal genes expressed in the organizer and ventral-specific genes. In this antagonistic interplay of activities, BMP-4, a gene that is not expressed in the organizer, provides a strong ventralizing signal. The Xenopus caudal type homeobox gene, Xcad-2, which(More)
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a set of developmental malformations caused by alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), the strongest manifestation of FASD, results in short stature, microcephally and facial dysmorphogenesis including microphthalmia. Using Xenopus embryos as a model developmental system, we show that(More)
Optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) in the 800-nm biological imaging window is demonstrated by using a novel wavelength-swept laser source. The laser output is tuned continuously from 815 to 870 nm at a 43.2-kHz repetition rate with 7-mW average power. Axial resolution of 10-mum in biological tissue and peak sensitivity of 96 dB are achieved. In vivo(More)
The organizer in vertebrate embryos has been shown to play a central role in their development by antagonizing ventralizing signals and promoting dorsal development. The ventral homeobox gene, Xvex-1, is capable of fulfilling some of the functions of BMP-4. By fusion to activation and repression domains, Xvex-1 was shown to function as a repressor of(More)
Full-field optical coherence microscopy (FFOCM) is an interferometric technique for obtaining wide-field microscopic images deep within scattering biological samples. FFOCM has primarily been implemented in the 0.8 mum wavelength range with silicon-based cameras, which may limit penetration when imaging human tissue. In this paper, we demonstrate FFOCM at(More)