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Carnosine, homocarnosine, and anserine are present in high concentrations in the muscle and brain of many animals and humans. However, their exact function is not clear. The antioxidant activity of these compounds has been examined by testing their peroxyl radical-trapping ability at physiological concentrations. Carnosine, homocarnosine, anserine, and(More)
The literature evidencing the role of iron in promoting a range of neoplasms in humans and animals prompted us to search for a possible association between chemically induced hemosiderosis and hemangiosarcomas in the liver of mice in selected studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP). Its historical control database was examined for studies(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the etiology of numerous diseases and are suggested to be one of the mechanisms of action of several teratogens such as cocaine, high concentrations of glucose and ketone bodies. We studied the antioxidant capacity of 9.5-12.5 day old rat embryos and their yolk sacs both in vivo and in vitro. We measured the(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetes teratogenicity seems to be related to embryonic oxidative stress and the extent of the embryonic damage can apparently be reduced by antioxidants. We have studied the mechanism by which antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E, reduce diabetes-induced embryonic damage. We therefore compared the antioxidant capacity of 10.5-day-old rat(More)
A striking similarity exists between the pathogenetic properties of group A streptococci and those of activated mammalian professional phagocytes (neutrophils, macrophages). Both types of cells are endowed by the ability to adhere to target cells; to elaborate oxidants, hydrolases, and membrane-active agents (hemolysins, phospholipases); and to freely(More)
A disturbed embryonic antioxidant defense mechanism may play a major role in diabetes-induced teratogenesis. We therefore studied the antioxidant capacity of 10.5-day-old rat embryos and their yolk sacs after culture for 28 hr in vitro under diabetic conditions (3 mg/ml glucose, 2 mg/ml beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHOB) and 10 microg/ml of acetoacetate), as(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetic teratogenicity relates, partly, to embryonic oxidative stress and the extent of the embryonic damage can apparently be reduced by antioxidants. We investigated the effects of superoxide dismutase-mimics nitroxides, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl piperidine-N-oxyl (TPL) as an effective antioxidant, on diabetes-induced embryopathy. METHODS Embryos(More)
Sera from diabetic patients or sera with high levels of diabetic metabolic products, were found to affect mouse and rat blastocysts. In the present study we examined the earliest developmental stages at which human diabetic serum will be lethal to mouse pre-implantation embryos, and whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in these(More)
There is a growing interest in the mechanisms of how cells integrate the multitude of signals that emanate during inflammatory stimuli, such as the hepatic acute phase response to burn or trauma. We have used measurements of extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) of HepG2 cells cultured on microporous membranes to probe the coupling between signaling(More)
Human neutrophils (PMNs) stimulated by sub-toxic concentrations of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CETAB) (37 μmol/L) generated intense luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (LDCL) and moderate non-amplified chemiluminescence (CL), but, paradoxically, generation of superoxide (as assayed by cytochrome c reduction, lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence,(More)