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Using actigraphic monitoring of wrist activity, we investigated the sleep and rest-activity patterns of 65 young, middle-aged, old and the oldest subjects in their natural environmental conditions. To assess the effects of age and gender on sleep and circadian rhythms in activity, multivariate analyses were performed. Age significantly affected circadian(More)
Neuropathology is the most reliable criterion for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD). A well-established system for staging the spread of neuropathological changes in AD is available. The clinical use of a biomarker that reflects the neuropathological change occurring in brain tissue has not yet been established. Melatonin is a product that plays not only(More)
A disturbed sleep-wake rhythm is common in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and correlated with decreased melatonin levels and a disrupted circadian melatonin rhythm. Melatonin levels in the cerebrospinal fluid are decreased during the progression of AD neuropathology (as determined by the Braak stages), already in cognitively intact subjects with the(More)
Neurotrophins and cell adhesion molecules regulate axon guidance, but their potential coordinate interactions are not well defined. In particular, it has been difficult to define the role of signaling from different surface molecules in neurotrophin-induced axon growth because of the strong dependence of embryonic neurons on this class of molecules for(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the interaction of airway epithelial cell line A549 with fragments of mycelium, spores of Aspergillus fumigatus in vitro and to determine if toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in the process. METHODS A549 cells were exposed to fragments of A. fumigatus mycelium, zymosan and inactivated A. fumigatus spores. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the "master clock" of the mammalian brain. It coordinates the peripheral clocks in the body, including the pineal clock that receives SCN input via a multisynaptic noradrenergic pathway. Rhythmic pineal melatonin production is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we show that the clock genes hBmal1, hCry1, and(More)
Sleep impairment is one of the major side effects of glucocorticoid therapy. The mechanism responsible for this circadian disorder is unknown, but alterations in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the biological clock of the human brain, are presumed to play a major role. In the present study, the amount of vasopressin mRNA (AVP mRNA) expression in the SCN(More)
Autophagy, a conversed response to stress, has recently been studied in human cancers. Two important autophagic genes—Beclin-1 and LC3 are reported in several human cancers. However, the expressions of Beclin-1 and LC3 in lung cancer have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3, and the(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized pathologically by selective neuronal loss and by the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and senile plaques (SPs). Since calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-alpha (CaMKII-alpha), one of the most abundant kinases in the brain, is involved in the phosphorylation of tau and amyloid precursor protein(More)
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is involved in phagocytosis and autophagy to enhance host innate immune response to bacterial infection. TLR2 has been reported to participate in the recognition of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). However, the role of TLR2 in phagocytosis and autophagy in S. aureus-stimulated macrophages and the underlying mechanisms as yet(More)