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Heart failure (HF) is driven by the interplay between regulatory transcription factors and dynamic alterations in chromatin structure. Pathologic gene transactivation in HF is associated with recruitment of histone acetyl-transferases and local chromatin hyperacetylation. We therefore assessed the role of acetyl-lysine reader proteins, or bromodomains, in(More)
Tinkering with pre-existing genes has long been known as a major way to create new genes. Recently, however, motherless protein-coding genes have been found to have emerged de novo from ancestral non-coding DNAs. How these genes originated is not well addressed to date. Here we identified 24 hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes with precise(More)
Human exposure to botulinum toxin typically occurs in two settings: 1) as an etiologic agent in the disease botulism and 2) as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of dystonia. Epidemiologic studies on botulism suggest that the human nervous system is susceptible to five toxin serotypes (A, B, E, F and G) and resistant to two (C and D). In the past, these(More)
During an ischemic stroke normal brain endothelial function is perturbed, resulting in blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown with subsequent infiltration of activated inflammatory blood cells, ultimately leading to neuronal cell death. Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) is regulated by flow, is highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells (ECs), and serves as a(More)
The intracellular signaling mechanisms underlying postnatal angiogenesis are incompletely understood. Herein we show that Grb-2-associated binder 1 (Gab1) plays a critical role in ischemic and VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Endothelium-specific Gab1 KO (EGKO) mice displayed impaired angiogenesis in the ischemic hindlimb despite normal induction of VEGF(More)
Although the rhesus macaque is a unique model for the translational study of human diseases, currently its use in biomedical research is still in its infant stage due to error-prone gene structures and limited annotations. Here, we present RhesusBase for the monkey research community (http://www.rhesusbase.org). We performed strand-specific RNA-Seq studies(More)
The genetic distance between biological sequences is a fundamental quantity in molecular evolution. It pertains to questions of rates of evolution, existence of a molecular clock, and phylogenetic inference. Under the class of continuous-time substitution models, the distance is commonly defined as the expected number of substitutions at any site in the(More)
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality; however, the mechanisms that are involved in disease initiation and progression are incompletely understood. Extracellular matrix proteins play an integral role in modulating vascular homeostasis in health and disease. Here, we determined that the expression of the matricellular(More)
The aim of this study was to examine the controversial effects of experimental unilateral cryptorchidism and subsequent orchiopexy on the number of germ cells and other morphometric characteristics of testicular and epididymal structures in adult rabbits. Unilateral cryptorchidism was induced in 11 mature male New Zealand white rabbits by returning one(More)
The metabolic myocardium is an omnivore and utilizes various carbon substrates to meet its energetic demand. While the adult heart preferentially consumes fatty acids (FAs) over carbohydrates, myocardial fuel plasticity is essential for organismal survival. This metabolic plasticity governing fuel utilization is under robust transcriptional control and(More)