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Schizophrenia has been associated with abnormal task-related brain activation in sensory and motor regions as well as social cognition network. Recently, two studies investigated temporal correlation between resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) in schizophrenia but reported mixed results. This may be(More)
Humans appear to have an inherent prosocial tendency toward one another in that we often take pleasure in seeing others succeed. This fact is almost certainly exploited by game shows, yet why watching others win elicits a pleasurable vicarious rewarding feeling in the absence of personal economic gain is unclear. One explanation is that game shows use(More)
Previous studies find that the feedback-related negativity in brain potentials is sensitive to the negative outcome of one's own performance. The feedback-related negativity is suggested to reflect the learning processes using feedback about the consequences of recent actions. Learning can also take place when one observes other people's actions and the(More)
Phylogenetic threats such as spiders evoke our deepest primitive fears. When close or looming, such threats engage evolutionarily conserved monitoring systems and defense reactions that promote self-preservation. With the use of a modified behavioral approach task within functional MRI, we show that, as a tarantula was placed closer to a subject's foot,(More)
Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent in the general population but the effects of chronic smoking on brain structures are still unclear. Previous studies have found mixed results regarding regional grey matter abnormalities in smokers. To characterize both grey and white matter changes in heavy male smokers, we investigated 16 heavy smokers and 16 matched(More)
Feedback-related negativity is a negative deflection in brain potentials associated with feedback indicating monetary losses or response errors. Feedback-related negativity is studied primarily in paradigms in which participants experience negative outcomes that appear to be contingent upon their previous choices. This study investigated whether(More)
There is still no clear consensus as to which of the many functional and structural changes in the brain in schizophrenia are of most importance, although the main focus to date has been on those in the frontal and cingulate cortices. In the present study, we have used a novel holistic approach to identify brain-wide functional connectivity changes in(More)
Reward probability and uncertainty are two fundamental parameters of decision making. Whereas reward probability indicates the prospect of winning, reward uncertainty, measured as the variance of probability, indicates the degree of risk. Several lines of evidence have suggested that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays an important role in reward(More)
The functional significance of error-related negativity (Ne/ERN), which occurs at approximately the same time as erroneous responses, has been investigated extensively using reaction time (RT) tasks. The error detection theory assumes that the Ne/ERN reflects the mismatch detected by comparing representations of the intended and the actually performed(More)
Chronic low back pain is a common neurological disorder. The periaqueductal gray (PAG) plays a key role in the descending modulation of pain. In this study, we investigated brain resting state PAG functional connectivity (FC) differences between patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) in low pain or high pain condition and matched healthy controls (HCs).(More)