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Ca(2+) sparks are small, localized cytosolic Ca(2+) transients due to Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptors. In smooth muscle, Ca(2+) sparks activate large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BK channels) in the spark microdomain, thus generating spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs). The purpose of the(More)
1. Local changes in cytosolic [Ca2+] were imaged with a wide-field, high-speed, digital imaging system while membrane currents were simultaneously recorded using whole-cell, perforated patch recording in freshly dissociated guinea-pig tracheal myocytes. 2. Depending on membrane potential, Ca2+ sparks triggered 'spontaneous' transient inward currents(More)
Ca(2+) sparks are highly localized cytosolic Ca(2+) transients caused by a release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum via ryanodine receptors (RyRs); they are the elementary events underlying global changes in Ca(2+) in skeletal and cardiac muscle. In smooth muscle and some neurons, Ca(2+) sparks activate large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+)(More)
RATIONALE Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder with a characteristic of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) [Cl((Ca))] channels are inferred to be involved in AHR, yet their molecular nature and the cell type they act within to mediate this response remain unknown. OBJECTIVES Transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A) and TMEM16B are(More)
Intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i) serves as a versatile signal to mediate a remarkable array of cellular processes, including neurotransmitter and hormone secretion , muscle contraction, and gene regulation. To fulfill such diverse functions, cells evolve many strategies to generate Ca 2+ signals tailored to specific cellular functions(More)
Ca(2+) sparks are highly localized, transient releases of Ca(2+) from sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptors (RyRs). In smooth muscle, Ca(2+) sparks trigger spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) by opening nearby clusters of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, and also gate Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) (Cl((Ca))) channels to(More)
Bronchodilators are a standard medicine for treating airway obstructive diseases, and β2 adrenergic receptor agonists have been the most commonly used bronchodilators since their discovery. Strikingly, activation of G-protein-coupled bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) in airway smooth muscle (ASM) causes a stronger bronchodilation in vitro and in vivo than β2(More)
Localized, transient elevations in cytosolic Ca2+, known as Ca2+ sparks, caused by Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum, are thought to trigger the opening of large conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels in the plasma membrane resulting in spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) in smooth muscle cells. But the precise relationships between(More)
Spontaneous, short-lived, focal cytosolic Ca2+ transients were found for the first time and characterized in freshly dissociated chromaffin cells from mouse. Produced by release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and mediated by type 2 and perhaps type 3 ryanodine receptors (RyRs), these transients are quantitatively similar in magnitude and duration to Ca2+(More)
Ca 2ϩ stores were studied in a preparation of freshly dissociated terminals from hypothalamic magnocellular neurons. Depolarization from a holding level of Ϫ80 mV in the absence of extracellular Ca 2ϩ elicited Ca 2ϩ release from intraterminal stores, a ryanodine-sensitive process designated as voltage-induced Ca 2ϩ release (VICaR). The release took one of(More)