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BACKGROUND Whether left atrial (LA) functional abnormalities already exist when the LA is of normal size is unknown. The aim of this study was to explore LA energy loss and mechanics changes using vector flow mapping (VFM) and two-dimensional tissue tracking (2DTT) echocardiography in patients with diabetes and normal LA size. MATERIAL/METHODS This study(More)
The aim of this study was to assess left ventricular (LV) energy loss (EL) using vector flow mapping in patients with prediabetes (pre-DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Thirty pre-DM patients, 51 DM patients, and 38 controls were studied by transthoracic echocardiography. EL-total, EL-base, EL-mid and EL-apex climaxed at different phases. Compared with(More)
Pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) is a rare and severe genetic disease; therefore, an accurate molecular diagnosis is essential for appropriate disease treatment and family planning. Currently, the diagnosis of PSACH is based mainly on family history, physical examination and radiographic evaluation. Genetic studies of patients with PSACH in Chinese populations(More)
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