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BACKGROUND Until now, polymyxin resistance has involved chromosomal mutations but has never been reported via horizontal gene transfer. During a routine surveillance project on antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from food animals in China, a major increase of colistin resistance was observed. When an E coli strain, SHP45, possessing(More)
The formulation and simulation characteristics of two new global coupled climate models developed at NOAA’s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) are described. The models were designed to simulate atmospheric and oceanic climate and variability from the diurnal time scale through multicentury climate change, given our computational constraints. In(More)
Multi-dimensional data indexing has received much attention in a centralized database. However, not so much work has been done on this topic in the context of Peerto- Peer systems. In this paper, we propose a new Peer-to- Peer framework based on a balanced tree structure overlay, which can support extensible centralized mapping methods and query processing(More)
Peer-to-Peer systems have recently become a popular means to share resources. Effective search is a critical requirement in such systems, and a number of distributed search structures have been proposed in the literature. Most of these structures provide "log time search" capability, where the logarithm is taken base 2. That is, in a system with <i>N</i>(More)
This paper describes the development of a word-level confidence metric suitable for use in a dialog system. Two aspects of the problems are investigated: the identification of useful features and the selection of an effective classifier. We find that two parse-level features, Parsing-Mode and SlotBackoff-Mode, provide annotation accuracy comparable to that(More)
Recent studies have revealed the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in a variety of basic biological and pathological processes and the association of miRNA signatures with human diseases. Circulating miRNAs have been proposed as sensitive and informative biomarkers for multiple cancers diagnosis. We have previously documented aberrant up-regulation of miR-1(More)
This article presents a mathematical paradigm called Data Driven Markov Chain Monte Carlo (DDMCMC) for object recognition. The obje ctives of this paradigm are two-fold. Firstly, it realizes traditional \hyp othesis-and-test"methods through wellbalanced Markov chain monte Carlo (MCMC) dynamics, thus it achieves robust and globally optimal solutions. Se(More)
β-Adrenergic receptor (βAR) stimulation increases cytosolic Ca2+ to physiologically augment cardiac contraction, whereas excessive βAR activation causes adverse cardiac remodeling, including myocardial hypertrophy, dilation and dysfunction, in individuals with myocardial infarction. The Ca2+-calmodulin–dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a recently(More)
We conducted a three-stage genetic study to identify susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in east Asian populations. We followed our stage 1 meta-analysis of eight T2D genome-wide association studies (6,952 cases with T2D and 11,865 controls) with a stage 2 in silico replication analysis (5,843 cases and 4,574 controls) and a stage 3 de novo(More)
BACKGROUND Recent advance in genetic studies added the confirmed susceptible loci for type 2 diabetes to eighteen. In this study, we attempt to analyze the independent and joint effect of variants from these loci on type 2 diabetes and clinical phenotypes related to glucose metabolism. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Twenty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms(More)