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Tumor cells are elusive targets for immunotherapy due to their heterogeneity and genetic instability. Here we describe a novel, oral DNA vaccine that targets stable, proliferating endothelial cells in the tumor vasculature rather than tumor cells. Targeting occurs through upregulated vascular-endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (FLK-1) of proliferating(More)
BACKGROUND Advanced (stage 4) cases of neuroblastoma, a childhood cancer of the nervous system, are associated with high relapse rates, even after intensive chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and autologous bone marrow transplantation. Therefore, the use of monoclonal antibodies directed against the neuroblastoma tumor marker disialoganglioside GD2 (GD2), in(More)
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are associated with tumor progression and metastasis. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that legumain, a member of the asparaginyl endopeptidase family functioning as a stress protein, overexpressed by TAMs, provides an ideal target molecule. In fact, a legumain-based DNA vaccine served as a tool to prove this(More)
SRY-related HMG-box gene 2 (SOX2) is one of the key regulatory genes that maintain the pluripotency and self-renewal properties in embryonic stem cells. Here we used immunohistochemistry to analyze the expression of SOX2 in human prostate tissues and found it contributed to tumorigenesis and correlated with histologic grade and Gleason score. We further(More)
The ErbB-2/HER-2 receptor tyrosine kinase is overexpressed in a wide range of solid human tumors. The ErbB-2 gene product is a transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the epidermal growth factor receptor family, and its cytoplasmic domain is responsible for sending the mitogenic signals into cells. We discovered that this domain of ErbB-2 interacts with(More)
A novel strategy achieved the eradication of lung tumor metastases by joint suppression of angiogenesis in the tumor neovasculature and induction of tumor cell apoptosis. This was accomplished by CTLs induced by a DNA vaccine encoding secretory chemokine CCL21 and the inhibitor of apoptosis protein survivin, overexpressed by both proliferating endothelial(More)
Bcl-2 is known as a critical inhibitor of apoptosis triggered by a broad range of stimuli, mainly acting on the mitochondria. It can interact with many members of the Bcl-2 family, influence mitochondrial membrane permeability and modulate cell apoptosis. RTN3, a member of the reticulon (RTN) family, was predominantly localized on the endoplasmic reticulum(More)
SOX2 was reported to promote metastasis in various tumor tissues; however the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we disclosed that SOX2 improves metastasis of breast and prostate cancer cells by promoting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through WNT/β-catenin, but not TGF-β or Snail1 signaling. Dual luciferase assay and chromatin(More)
The stem cell-related transcription factor Oct4 regulates tumor proliferation and apoptosis, but its role in tumor migration and invasion is still undefined. Here, we compared Oct4 expression in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, two breast cancer cell lines with similar epithelial origins, but distinct invasive and metastatic characteristics. We found MCF-7 cells(More)
Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are well known to play a very important role in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. The suppression of TAMs in the tumor-microenvironment (TME) provides a novel strategy to inhibit tumor growth and dissemination by remodeling the tumor’s stroma. Here, we tested our hypothesis that suppression of TAMs can be achieved in(More)