Learn More
SOX2 was reported to promote metastasis in various tumor tissues; however the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we disclosed that SOX2 improves metastasis of breast and prostate cancer cells by promoting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through WNT/β-catenin, but not TGF-β or Snail1 signaling. Dual luciferase assay and chromatin(More)
The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis has gained significant recognition as a descriptor of tumorigenesis. Additionally, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are known to promote growth and metastasis of breast cancer. However, it is not known whether TAMs mediate tumorigenesis through regulation of breast CSCs. Here, we report that TAMs promote CSC-like(More)
OBJECTIVE The role of natural killer (NK) cells in regulating multiple sclerosis (MS) is not well understood. Additional studies with NK cells might provide insight into the mechanism of action of MS therapies such as daclizumab, an antibody against the interleukin (IL)-2R α-chain, which induces expansion of CD56(bright) NK cells. METHODS In a(More)
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are associated with tumor progression and metastasis. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that legumain, a member of the asparaginyl endopeptidase family functioning as a stress protein, overexpressed by TAMs, provides an ideal target molecule. In fact, a legumain-based DNA vaccine served as a tool to prove this(More)
The glutathione (GSH)-dependent antioxidant system has been demonstrated to inhibit atherosclerosis. Macrophage CD36 uptakes oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) thereby facilitating foam cell formation and development of atherosclerosis. It remains unknown if GSH can influence macrophage CD36 expression and cellular oxLDL uptake directly. Herein we(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells of the innate immune system can profoundly impact the development of adaptive immune responses. Inflammatory and autoimmune responses in anatomical locations such as the central nervous system (CNS) differ substantially from those found in peripheral organs. We show in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis that NK cell enrichment(More)
A carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-based DNA vaccine, adsorbed onto cationic microparticles of poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) induced tumor-protective immunity against a lethal challenge of MC38-CEA colon carcinoma cells in CEA-transgenic mice that was more potent than that of the corresponding naked DNA vaccine. Boosting with a plasmid encoding murine(More)
We demonstrate that a mouse-human chimeric anti-ganglioside GD2-interleukin (IL)-2 fusion protein (ch14.18-IL2) substantially amplifies tumor-protective immunity against murine melanoma induced by an autologous oral DNA vaccine containing the murine ubiquitin gene fused to murine melanoma peptide epitopes gp100(25-35) and TRP-2(181-188). This combination(More)
Both peritubular inflammation and tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are critical events during the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. However, the relationship between these two processes is unclear. Here, we investigated the potential role of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in coupling peritubular inflammation and EMT. In a mouse model of(More)