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Aiming at automatically discovering the common objects contained in a set of relevant images and segmenting them as foreground simultaneously, object co-segmentation has become an active research topic in recent years. Although a number of approaches have been proposed to address this problem, many of them are designed with the misleading assumption,(More)
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), a major causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome which is an emerging and important swine disease, can induce apoptotic responses in vitro and in vivo. However, the molecular mechanism of PCV2-induced apoptosis is not well understood. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), serves as an upstream(More)
Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences.
Many viruses exploit the host cell division cycle to favour their own growth. Here we demonstrated that porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), which is a major causative agent of an emerging and important swine disease complex, PCV2-associated diseases, caused G0/G1 cell cycle arrest through degradation of cyclin D1 and E followed by reduction of retinoblastoma(More)
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive failure and respiratory illness in pigs and usually establishes a persistent infection. Previous studies suggested that interleukin-10 (IL-10) could play a critical role in PRRSV-induced immunosuppression. However, the ability of PRRSV to induce IL-10 in infected cells is(More)
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) mainly infects macrophages/dendritic cells and modulates cytokine expression in these cells. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in wide range of biological activities. It has been shown to be essential for the generation, activation, and proliferation of NK and NKT cells and(More)
Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine that plays an important role in regulating the immune response. Therefore, understanding how IL-10 is regulated is important. The regulatory elements have been well studied in human and mouse promoters and several transcription factors have been showed to be involved in IL-10(More)
In a recent study, we reported that a recombinant protein from fusion expression of flagellin to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) Cap induced robust humoral and cell-mediated immunity that afforded full protection for PCV2 infection using BALB/c mice. Here, we further evaluated the immunogenicity and protection of the recombinant protein using specific(More)
The Cap protein of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) that serves as a major host-protective immunogen was used to develop recombinant vaccines for control of PCV2-associated diseases. Growing research data have demonstrated the high effectiveness of flagellin as an adjuvant for humoral and cellular immune responses. Here, a recombinant protein was designed(More)
Atypical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by a highly pathogenic PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV) is characterized by high fever, high morbidity, high mortality, and associated with severe neurological symptoms. Microglia are the resident innate immune cells in central nervous system (CNS), and their activation has been implicated as an(More)