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Rare individuals have been multiply exposed to HIV-1 but remain uninfected. The CD4+ T-cells of two of these individuals, designated EU2 and EU3, are highly resistant in vitro to the entry of primary macrophagetropic virus but are readily infectable with transformed T-cell line adapted viruses. We report here on the genetic basis of this resistance. We(More)
Autophagy is a stress response protecting cells from unfavorable conditions, such as nutrient starvation. The class III phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, Vps34, forms multiple complexes and regulates both intracellular vesicle trafficking and autophagy induction. Here, we show that AMPK plays a key role in regulating different Vps34 complexes. AMPK inhibits(More)
Ghrelin is a recently identified growth hormone (GH) secretogogue whose administration not only induces GH release but also stimulates food intake, increases adiposity, and reduces fat utilization in mice. The effect on food intake appears to be independent of GH release and instead due to direct activation of orexigenic neurons in the arcuate nucleus of(More)
Autophagy, an important catabolic pathway implicated in a broad spectrum of human diseases, begins by forming double membrane autophagosomes that engulf cytosolic cargo and ends by fusing autophagosomes with lysosomes for degradation. Membrane fusion activity is required for early biogenesis of autophagosomes and late degradation in lysosomes. However, the(More)
Stem cell cultures can be derived directly from early developing embryos and indirectly from differentiated cells by forced expression of pluripotency transcription factors. Pluripotency genes are routinely used to characterize mammalian stem cell cultures at the molecular level. However, such genes have remained unknown in lower vertebrates. In this(More)
The Beclin family, including yeast Atg6 (autophagy related gene 6), its orthologs in higher eukaryotic species, and the more recently characterized mammalian-specific Beclin 2, are essential molecules in autophagy and other membrane-trafficking events. Extensive studies of Beclin orthologs have provided considerable insights into the regulation of(More)
Trb3, a mammalian homolog of Drosophila tribbles, was proposed as a suppressor of Akt activity, predominantly in conditions of fasting and diabetes. Given these prior studies, we sought to determine whether Trb3 plays a major role in modulating hepatic insulin sensitivity. To answer this question, we produced mice in which a lacZ reporter was knocked into(More)
Spermatogonia are the male germ stem cells that continuously produce sperm for the next generation. Spermatogenesis is a complicated process that proceeds through mitotic phase of stem cell renewal and differentiation, meiotic phase, and postmeiotic phase of spermiogenesis. Full recapitulation of spermatogenesis in vitro has been impossible, as generation(More)
BACKGROUND Virologic failure following treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 with direct-acting antiviral agents is often accompanied by the emergence of resistant variants. MK-5172 is an investigational once-daily protease inhibitor. We analyzed variants in treatment-naive noncirrhotic patients with virologic failure on MK-5172 (100-800 mg/day)(More)
Multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by the overexpression of the drug efflux protein P-glycoprotein is one of the major obstacles to successful cancer chemotherapy. The development of safe and effective MDR-reversing agents is an important approach to addressing this problem clinically. In this study, we evaluated the P-gp-modulatory potential of(More)