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Entry of HIV-1 into target cells requires cell-surface CD4 and additional host cell cofactors. A cofactor required for infection with virus adapted for growth in transformed T-cell lines was recently identified and named fusin. However, fusin does not promote entry of macrophage-tropic viruses, which are believed to be the key pathogenic strains in vivo.(More)
Rare individuals have been multiply exposed to HIV-1 but remain uninfected. The CD4+ T-cells of two of these individuals, designated EU2 and EU3, are highly resistant in vitro to the entry of primary macrophagetropic virus but are readily infectable with transformed T-cell line adapted viruses. We report here on the genetic basis of this resistance. We(More)
Autophagy is a stress response protecting cells from unfavorable conditions, such as nutrient starvation. The class III phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, Vps34, forms multiple complexes and regulates both intracellular vesicle trafficking and autophagy induction. Here, we show that AMPK plays a key role in regulating different Vps34 complexes. AMPK inhibits(More)
Pharmacophore/receptor models for three recombinant GABA(A)/BzR subtypes (alpha1beta3gamma2, alpha5beta3gamma2, and alpha6beta3gamma2) have been established via an SAR ligand-mapping approach. This study was based on the affinities of 151 BzR ligands at five distinct (alpha1-3,5,6beta3gamma2) recombinant GABA(A)/BzR receptor subtypes from at least nine(More)
Programmed cell death (apoptosis) seems to be the principal mechanism whereby anti-oncogenic therapies such as chemotherapy and radiation effect their responses. Resistance to apoptosis, therefore, is probably a principal mechanism whereby tumors are able to overcome these cancer therapies. The transcription factor NF-kappaB is activated by chemotherapy and(More)
The synthesis and pharmacological properties of imidazobenzodiazepines with both high affinity and selectivity for alpha 5-containing GABAA receptors are described. Four of these compounds (5, 6, 8, and 9) inhibited [3H]flunitrazepam binding to recombinant alpha 5 beta 2 gamma 2 GABAA receptors with IC50 values between approximately 0.4 and 5 nM. These(More)
A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in the Heilongjiang Province of northeast China between May 1993 and May 1995. A total of 129 histologically confirmed brain cancer cases (73 gliomas and 56 meningiomas) and 258 matched controls were interviewed in 6 major hospitals to examine the influence of dietary factors in developing brain cancer.(More)
We purified, cloned, and expressed aggrecanase, a protease that is thought to be responsible for the degradation of cartilage aggrecan in arthritic diseases. Aggrecanase-1 [a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-4 (ADAMTS-4)] is a member of the ADAMTS protein family that cleaves aggrecan at the glutamic acid-373-alanine-374 bond. The(More)
The diverse function of retinoic acid (RA) is mediated by its nuclear receptors, the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs). However, the RA response is often lost in cancer cells that express the receptors. Previously, it was demonstrated that the RA response is regulated by the COUP-TF orphan receptors. Here, we present evidence(More)
A case-control study of risk factors for glioma in adults was carried out in Heilongjiang province in northeast China. Between September 1989 and May 1995, 218 histologically confirmed cases of glioma requiring surgery for tumor removal (139 astrocytoma glioma and 79 other glioma) and 436 controls with non-neoplastic and non-neurological disease were(More)