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In the present review evidence is presented that (1) glutamine synthesis in astrocytes is essential for synthesis of GABA in neurons; (2) alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of alanine (as an amino group donor) can replace glutamine as a precursor for synthesis of transmitter glutamate, but maybe not as a precursor for transmitter GABA; (3) differences(More)
We aim to investigate whether decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity exists in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). In addition, we sought to determine whether interhemispheric functional connectivity deficits associated with cognition and insulin resistance (IR)(More)
Neoadjuvant radio-chemotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard treatment option for stage II and III rectal cancer. However, for pT3N0 rectal cancer patients who receive upfront TME, the lack of an efficient method to predict their prognosis hampers postoperative treatment. A low lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) is associated(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) have been proven suitable for stem cell therapy after myocardial infarction, especially c-kit(+)CPCs. CPCs marker c-kit and its ligand, the stem cell factor (SCF), are linked as c-kit/SCF axis, which is associated with the functions of proliferation and differentiation. In our previous study, we found that stromal(More)
Plants are often subjected to iron (Fe)-deficiency stress because of its low solubility. Plants have evolved two distinct strategies to solubilize and transport Fe to acclimate to this abiotic stress condition. Transcriptomic profiling analysis was performed using Illumina digital gene expression to understand the mechanism underlying resistance responses(More)
BACKGROUND The characteristics of established risk factors for breast cancer may vary among countries. A better understanding of local characteristics of risk factors may help in devising effective prevention strategies for breast cancer. METHODS Information on exposures to risk factors was collected from the medical charts of 4211 women with breast(More)
The culture filtrate of Bacillus subtilis strain C2 showed strong activity against the pathogenic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. radicicola. A partially purified fraction (PPF) from the extract induced chlamydospore formation in Fusarium. Reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography yielded 8 different fractions, six of which had(More)
Metabolism of glutamate and glutamine in cultured mouse cerebral cortical astrocytes has been investigated using either radioactively labelled (14C) amino acids or 13C-labelled amino acids combined with NMR spectroscopy of cell extracts and lyophilyzed incubation media. Using [U-13C]glutamate it has been shown that in astrocytes exogenously supplied(More)
Accumulation of radioactivity was studied in primary cultures of mouse astrocytes as a function of time of exposure (4-60 min) to 50 microM glutamate and 200 microM glutamine (initial concentrations), of which either glutamate or glutamine was 14C-labeled. Both the glutamate pool and the glutamine pool were compartmentalized. Initially, by far the major(More)