Learn More
It has been reported that ischemic insult increases the formation of autophagosomes and activates autophagy. However, the role of autophagy in ischemic neuronal damage remains elusive. This study was taken to assess the role of autophagy in ischemic brain damage. Focal cerebral ischemia was introduced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO).(More)
Several recent studies have showed that autophagy is involved in ischemic brain damage, but it may also play a pro-survival role in ischemic preconditioning. This study was taken to determine the role of autophagy in an animal model of cerebral ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Focal cerebral IPC was produced in rats by a brief ischemic insult followed by(More)
Previous studies found that kainic acid (KA)-induced apoptosis involved the lysosomal enzyme cathepsin B, suggesting a possible mechanism of autophagy in excitotoxicity. The present study was sought to investigate activation and contribution of autophagy to excitotoxic neuronal injury mediated by KA receptors. The formation of autophagosomes was observed(More)
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Paeoniflorin (PF) is the principal bioactive component of Radix Paeoniae alba, which is widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). AIM OF THE STUDY To evaluate the neuroprotective effects of PF on MPP(+)- or acid- (pH 5.0) induced injury in(More)
Mammals generate external coloration via dedicated pigment-producing cells but arrange pigment into patterns through mechanisms largely unknown. Here, using mice as models, we show that patterns ultimately emanate from dedicated pigment-receiving cells. These pigment recipients are epithelial cells that recruit melanocytes to their position in the skin and(More)
Recent studies have suggested that autophagy plays a prosurvival role in ischemic preconditioning (IPC). This study was taken to assess the linkage between autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress during the process of IPC. The effects of IPC on ER stress and neuronal injury were determined by exposure of primary cultured murine cortical neurons to(More)
In vivo administration of the mitochondrial inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) produces striatal pathology mimicking Huntington disease (HD). However, the mechanisms of cell death induced by metabolic impairment are not fully understood. The present study investigated contributions of p53 signaling pathway to autophagy activation and cell death induced(More)
In vivo administration of the mitochondrial inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) produces striatal pathology mimicking Huntington's disease (HD). However, the mechanisms of cell death induced by metabolic impairment are not fully understood. Previous studies showed that 3-NP triggered p53-depedent autophagy activation and cell death. The present study(More)
In mammalian skin, melanin is produced by melanocytes and transferred to epithelial cells, with the epithelial cells thought to receive pigment only and not generate it. Melanin formation requires the enzyme tyrosinase, which catalyzes multiple reactions in the melanin biosynthetic pathway. Here, we reassess cutaneous melanogenesis using tyramide-based(More)
The venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus is reported to have analgesic activity and the administration of Crotoxin (Cro) to cancer patients is reported to reduce the consumption of analgesics. This study investigated the analgesia induced by Cro and the effects of atropine and naloxone on the antinociceptive activity of Cro in mice and rats. The results(More)