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The conjugation of arginine to proteins is a part of the N-end rule pathway of protein degradation. Three amino (N)-terminal residues--aspartate, glutamate and cysteine--are arginylated by ATE1-encoded arginyl-transferases. Here we report that oxidation of N-terminal cysteine is essential for its arginylation. The in vivo oxidation of N-terminal cysteine,(More)
The enzymatic conjugation of arginine to the N-termini of proteins is a part of the ubiquitin-dependent N-end rule pathway of protein degradation. In mammals, three N-terminal residues-aspartate, glutamate, and cysteine-are substrates for arginylation. The mouse ATE1 gene encodes a family of Arg-tRNA-protein transferases (R-transferases) that mediate(More)
Iron excess is closely associated with tumorigenesis in multiple types of human cancers, with underlying mechanisms yet unclear. Recently, iron deprivation has emerged as a major strategy for chemotherapy, but it exerts tumor suppression only on select human malignancies. Here, we report that the tumor suppressor protein p53 is downregulated during iron(More)
In mammalian cells, DNA methylation critically regulates gene expression and thus has pivotal roles in myriad of physiological and pathological processes. Here we report a novel method for targeted DNA demethylation using the widely used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas system. Initially, modified single guide RNAs(More)
Microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip technologies have made it possible to manipulate small volume liquids with unprecedented resolution, automation and integration. However, most current microfluidic systems still rely on bulky off-chip infrastructures such as compressed pressure sources, syringe pumps and computers to achieve complex liquid manipulation(More)
Cushing's disease, also known as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas (PAs) that cause excess cortisol production, accounts for up to 85% of corticotrophin-dependent Cushing's syndrome cases. However, the genetic alterations in this disease are unclear. Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing of DNA derived from 12(More)
The Ate1 arginyltransferase (R-transferase) is a component of the N-end rule pathway, which recognizes proteins containing N-terminal degradation signals called N-degrons, polyubiquitylates these proteins, and thereby causes their degradation by the proteasome. Ate1 arginylates N-terminal Asp, Glu, or (oxidized) Cys. The resulting N-terminal Arg is(More)
Alcohol is a well-established cause of esophageal carcinoma, but its effect on survival is little known and contradictory. To clarify whether drinking is an independent predictor of survival in esophageal carcinoma, 2151 Chinese patients, receiving surgical resection from January 1997 to December 2008, were followed until March 2014. Cox proportional(More)
To understand the effects of soil temperature and moisture on rice straw decomposition during the off-rice season and subsequent CH4 production in rice growth season, we firstly incubated a paddy soil with 13C-labeled straw addition under four temperature (±5, 5, 15, and 25 °C) and two moisture levels (60 and 100 % water-filled pore space (WFPS)) under(More)
The survival rate of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) patients is still dismal. Therefore, novel prognostic biomarkers are critically needed for patients with ESCC. SLC9A9 has been reported to be downregulated in hormone-sensitive prostate cancer; however, the correlations between SLC9A9 and ESCC prognosis are unclear. The aim of this study is to(More)