Learn More
Two-component signal transduction based on phosphotransfer from a histidine protein kinase to a response regulator protein is a prevalent strategy for coupling environmental stimuli to adaptive responses in bacteria. In both histidine kinases and response regulators, modular domains with conserved structures and biochemical activities adopt different(More)
Response regulators (RRs) comprise a major family of signaling proteins in prokaryotes. A modular architecture that consists of a conserved receiver domain and a variable effector domain enables RRs to function as phosphorylation-regulated switches that couple a wide variety of cellular behaviors to environmental cues. Recently, advances have been made in(More)
Waterlogging usually results from overuse or poor management of irrigation water and is a serious constraint due to its damaging effects. RAP2.6L (At5g13330) overexpression enhances plant resistance to jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it is not known whether RAP2.6L overexpression in vivo(More)
To evaluate vaccine efficacy in protecting against coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), which causes human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), we established the first neonatal mouse model. In this article, we report data concerning CA16-induced pathological changes, and we demonstrate that anti-CA16 antibody can protect mice against lethal challenge and that the(More)
Isoalantolactone, a sesquiterpene lactone compound possesses antifungal, antibacteria, antihelminthic and antiproliferative activities. In the present study, we found that isoalantolactone inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. Further mechanistic studies revealed that induction of apoptosis is associated with increased generation(More)
Response regulator (RR) proteins exploit different molecular surfaces in their inactive and active conformations for a variety of regulatory intramolecular and/or intermolecular protein-protein interactions that either inhibit or activate effector domain activities. This versatile strategy enables numerous regulatory mechanisms among RRs. The recent(More)
The aim of this study was to prepare a novel nanoemulsion loaded with poorly water-soluble chlorhexidine acetate (CNE) to improve its solubility, and specifically enhance the antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans in vitro and in vivo. In this study, a novel CNE nanoemulsion with an average size of 63.13 nm and zeta potential of -67.13 mV(More)
Response regulators are the ultimate modulators in two-component signal transduction pathways. The N-terminal receiver domains generally accept phosphates from cognate histidine kinases to control output. VirG for example, the response regulator of the VirA/VirG two-component system in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, mediates the expression of virulence genes in(More)
A coordinated response to a complex and dynamic environment requires an organism to simultaneously monitor and interpret multiple signaling cues. In bacteria and some eukaryotes, environmental responses depend on the histidine autokinases (HKs). For example, VirA, a large integral membrane HK from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, regulates the expression of(More)
SUMMARY Two-component signal transduction, featuring highly conserved histidine kinases (HKs) and response regulators (RRs), is one of the most prevalent signalling schemes in prokaryotes. RRs function as phosphorylation-activated switches to mediate diverse output responses, mostly via transcription regulation. As bacterial genomes typically encode(More)