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This study investigates the changes of the North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH) and its impact on summer precipitation over the southeastern (SE) United States using the 850-hPa geopotential height field in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis, the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis(More)
Observations show that the standard precipitation index (SPI) over the southern Amazon region decreased in the period of 1970-1999 by 0.32 per decade, indicating an increase in dry conditions. Simulations of constant pre-industrial climate with recent climate models indicate a low probability (p=0%) that the trends are due to internal climate variability.(More)
The U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) working group on drought recently initiated a series of global climate model simulations forced with idealized SST anomaly patterns, designed to address a number of uncertainties regarding the impact of SST forcing and the role of land–atmosphere feedbacks on regional drought. The runs were carried(More)
Despite early speculation to the contrary, all tropical forests studied to date display seasonal variations in the presence of new leaves, flowers, and fruits. Past studies were focused on the timing of phenological events and their cues but not on the accompanying changes in leaf area that regulate vegetation-atmosphere exchanges of energy, momentum, and(More)
Previous studies have shown that c-jun and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) are both induced in injured motoneurons, but their roles in motoneuron death remain unclear. We hypothesized that nNOS might be the downstream effector of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/c-jun in avulsion-induced motoneuron death. Here, we found that brachial root-avulsion(More)
This study is to explore and compare the features of the cells and cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) isolated from both glioblastoma and astrocytoma on expression of anti-apoptotic and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) genes. As a result, the mRNA expression of livin, livinalpha and MRP1 was up-regulated in human CSCs from 2 times to 85 times, but(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic inflammation is an important mechanism for the development and progression of prostate cancer (PC). To better understand the potential relationship between genes in the inflammation pathway and PC risk, we evaluated variants in 16 candidate genes. METHODS A total of 143 tagging and amino acid altering single nucleotide polymorphisms(More)
BACKGROUND Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men, accounting for more than 30,000 deaths annually. The purpose of this study was to test whether variation in selected candidate genes in biological pathways of interest for prostate cancer progression could help distinguish patients at higher risk for fatal prostate(More)
The variability of summer precipitation in the southeastern United States is examined in this study using 60-yr (1948–2007) rainfall data. The Southeast summer rainfalls exhibited higher interannual variability with more intense summer droughts and anomalous wetness in the recent 30 years (1978–2007) than in the prior 30 years (1948–77). Such(More)
We have observed that the dry-season length (DSL) has increased over southern Amazonia since 1979, primarily owing to a delay of its ending dates (dry-season end, DSE), and is accompanied by a prolonged fire season. A poleward shift of the subtropical jet over South America and an increase of local convective inhibition energy in austral winter(More)