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[1] The global climate models for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4) predict very different changes of rainfall over the Amazon under the SRES A1B scenario for global climate change. Five of the eleven models predict an increase of annual rainfall, three models predict a decrease of rainfall, and the other(More)
Using 15-yr instantaneous European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis (ERA) data, the authors have examined the large-scale atmospheric conditions and the local surface fluxes through the transition periods from the dry to wet seasons over the southern Amazon region (58–158S, 458–758W). The composite results suggest that the transition(More)
Although the correlation between precipitation over tropical South America and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the Pacific and Atlantic has been documented since the early twentieth century, the impact of each ocean on the timing and intensity of the wet season over tropical South America and the underlying mechanisms have remained unclear. Numerical(More)
BACKGROUND Through mediation of estrogen receptors, estradiol has been shown to have both carcinogenic and anti-carcinogenic effects on the prostate. We performed a population-based case-control study to investigate variants in estrogen-related genes ESR1, ESR2, CYP19A1, CYP1A1, and CYP1B1 and the potential association with risk of prostate cancer (PCa). (More)
Although the wet season in the tropical Amazon (108N–208S) at any one place and in any one year is initiated rapidly by synoptic systems, large-scale thermodynamic conditions modulate the frequency and intensity of these synoptic systems and hence control the climatology of the wet season. In this study, the satellite radiances, radiosondes, and(More)
This study investigates the changes of the North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH) and its impact on summer precipitation over the southeastern (SE) United States using the 850-hPa geopotential height field in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis, the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis(More)
Despite early speculation to the contrary, all tropical forests studied to date display seasonal variations in the presence of new leaves, flowers, and fruits. Past studies were focused on the timing of phenological events and their cues but not on the accompanying changes in leaf area that regulate vegetation-atmosphere exchanges of energy, momentum, and(More)
875 Observational data and model simulations are the foundations of our understanding of the climate system1. Satellite remote sensing (SRS) — which acquires information about the Earth’s surface, subsurface and atmosphere remotely from sensors on board satellites (including geodetic satellites) — is an important component of climate system observations.(More)
During boreal summer, much of the water vapor and CO entering the global tropical stratosphere is transported over the Asian monsoon/Tibetan Plateau (TP) region. Studies have suggested that most of this transport is carried out either by tropical convection over the South Asian monsoon region or by extratropical convection over southern China. By using(More)