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Biological networks have so many possible states that exhaustive sampling is impossible. Successful analysis thus depends on simplifying hypotheses, but experiments on many systems hint that complicated, higher-order interactions among large groups of elements have an important role. Here we show, in the vertebrate retina, that weak correlations between(More)
Information is carried in the brain by the joint activity patterns of large groups of neurons. Understanding the structure and function of population neural codes is challenging because of the exponential number of possible activity patterns and dependencies among neurons. We report here that for groups of ~100 retinal neurons responding to natural stimuli,(More)
To understand a neural circuit completely requires simultaneous recording from most of the neurons in that circuit. Here we report recording and spike sorting techniques that enable us to record from all or nearly all of the ganglion cells in a patch of the retina. With a dense multi-electrode array, each ganglion cell produces a unique pattern of activity(More)
Gene activity is described by the time series of discrete, stochastic mRNA production events. This transcriptional time series shows intermittent, bursty behavior. One consequence of this temporal intricacy is that gene expression can be tuned by varying different features of the time series. Here we quantify copy-number statistics of mRNA from 20(More)
Evidence from a variety of recording methods suggests that many areas of the brain are far more sparsely active than commonly thought. Here, we review experimental findings pointing to the existence of neurons which fire action potentials rarely or only to very specific stimuli. Because such neurons would be difficult to detect with the most common method(More)
Studying the dynamics of neural activity via electrical recording, relies on the ability to detect and sort neural spikes recorded from a number of neurons by the same electrode. We suggest the wavelet packets decomposition (WPD) as a tool to analyze neural spikes and extract their main features. The unique quality of the wavelet packets-adaptive coverage(More)
Recently, we reported a novel technique for recording all of the ganglion cells in a retinal patch and showed that their receptive fields cover visual space roughly 60 times over in the tiger salamander. Here, we carry this analysis further and divide the population of ganglion cells into functional classes using quantitative clustering algorithms that(More)
Sensory information is represented in the brain by the joint activity of large groups of neurons. Recent studies have shown that, although the number of possible activity patterns and underlying interactions is exponentially large, pairwise-based models give a surprisingly accurate description of neural population activity patterns. We explored the(More)
We measured the long term spontaneous electrical activity of neuronal networks with different sizes, grown on lithographically prepared substrates and recorded with multi-electrode-array technology. The time sequences of synchronized bursting events were used to characterize network dynamics. All networks exhibit scale-invariant Lévy distributions and(More)
In the classic "What the frog's eye tells the frog's brain," Lettvin and colleagues showed that different types of retinal ganglion cell send specific kinds of information. For example, one type responds best to a dark, convex form moving centripetally (a fly). Here we consider a complementary question: how much information does the retina send and how is(More)