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Two mechanisms have been proposed for regulating rolling velocities on selectins. These are (a) the intrinsic kinetics of bond dissociation, and (b) the reactive compliance, i.e., the susceptibility of the bond dissociation reaction to applied force. To determine which of these mechanisms explains the 7.5-11.5-fold faster rolling of leukocytes on L-selectin(More)
Selectins tether to the blood vessel wall leukocytes that are flowing in the bloodstream and support subsequent labile rolling interactions as the leukocytes are subjected to hydrodynamic drag forces. To support this rolling, selectins have been proposed to have rapid bond association and dissociation rate constants, and special mechanical properties(More)
Selectins are cell adhesion molecules that bind carbohydrate ligands and promote interaction between leukocytes and the vessel wall in vascular shear flow. Selectin-ligand bonds have high mechanical strength, allowing initial tethering to the vessel wall through one or few bonds, and have fast on and off rates, permitting rolling in response to hydrodynamic(More)
Stem cell homing and repopulation are not well understood. The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor CXCR4 were found to be critical for murine bone marrow engraftment by human severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) repopulating stem cells. Treatment of human cells with antibodies to CXCR4 prevented engraftment. In vitro(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are recruited from blood into tissues to patrol for foreign antigens. After antigen uptake and processing, DCs migrate to the secondary lymphoid organs to initiate immune responses. We now show that DC-SIGN, a DC-specific C-type lectin, supports tethering and rolling of DC-SIGN-positive cells on the vascular ligand ICAM-2 under shear(More)
The burgeoning field of leukocyte trafficking has created new and exciting opportunities in the clinic. Trafficking signals are being defined that finely control the movement of distinct subsets of immune cells into and out of specific tissues. Because the accumulation of leukocytes in tissues contributes to a wide variety of diseases, these 'molecular(More)
Leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) is thought to be a chemotactic process controlled by chemokine gradients across the endothelium. Using cytokine-activated human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model of inflamed endothelium, we have shown that apical endothelial chemokines can trigger robust peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL)(More)
Integrins comprise a large family of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion receptors that rapidly modulate their adhesiveness. The arrest of leukocyte integrins on target vascular beds involves instantaneous conformational switches generating shear-resistant adhesions. Structural data suggest that these integrins are maintained in low-affinity conformations(More)
Selectins mediate the initial tethering and rolling of leukocytes on vessel walls. Adhesion by selectins is a function of both ligand recognition at equilibrium and mechanical properties of the selectin-ligand bond under applied force. We describe an EGF domain mutant of L-selectin with profoundly augmented adhesiveness over that of native L-selectin but(More)
In vivo, leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) occurs at endothelial cell junctions (paracellular) and nonjunctional (transcellular) locations, whereas in vitro models report that TEM is mostly paracellular. The mechanisms that control the route of leukocyte TEM remain unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that elevated intercellular adhesion(More)