Ronald William Oppenheim

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During normal development of the vertebrate nervous system, large numbers of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system undergo naturally occurring cell death. For example, about half of all spinal motor neurons die over a period of a few days in developing avian, rat and mouse embryos. Previous studies have shown that extracts from muscle and(More)
The death of cranial and spinal motoneurons (MNs) is believed to be an essential component of the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We tested this hypothesis by crossing Bax-deficient mice with mice expressing mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a transgenic model of familial ALS. Although Bax deletion failed to prevent neuromuscular(More)
The programmed cell death (PCD) of developing cells is considered an essential adaptive process that evolved to serve diverse roles. We review the putative adaptive functions of PCD in the animal kingdom with a major focus on PCD in the developing nervous system. Considerable evidence is consistent with the role of PCD in events ranging from neurulation and(More)
Unilateral limb-bud removal (LBR) before the outgrowth of sensory or motor neurons to the leg of chick embryos was used to examine the role of limb (target)-derived signals in the development and survival of lumbar motoneurons and sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). After LBR, motor and sensory neurons underwent normal initial histological(More)
Ronald W. Oppenheim target muscle–derived motoneuron survival factors that the newest suspect in this mystery, cardiotrophin-1 Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy and the Neuroscience Program (CT-1), must be examined (Pennica et al., 1996). The considerable current interest in the trophic requirements Bowman Gray School of Medicine Wake Forest University(More)
Because of discrepancies in previous reports regarding the role of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in motoneuron (MN) development and survival, we have reexamined MNs in GDNF-deficient mice and in mice exposed to increased GDNF after in utero treatment or in transgenic animals overexpressing GDNF under the control of the muscle-specific(More)
In the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult mouse hippocampus, a substantial number of new cells are generated daily, but only a subset of these survive and differentiate into mature neurons, whereas the majority undergo programmed cell death (PCD). However, neither the intracellular machinery required for adult stem cell-derived neuronal death nor the(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been shown to rescue developing motoneurons in vivo and in vitro from both naturally occurring and axotomy-induced cell death. To test whether GDNF has trophic effects on adult motoneurons, we used a mouse model of injury-induced adult motoneuron degeneration. Injuring adult motoneuron axons at the exit(More)