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T-lymphocyte activation displays a remarkable combination of speed, sensitivity, and discrimination in response to peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) ligand engagement of clonally distributed antigen receptors (T cell receptors or TCRs). Even a few foreign pMHCs on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell trigger effective signaling within(More)
Cells lining the gastrointestinal tract serve as both a barrier to and a pathway for infectious agent entry. Dendritic cells (DCs) present in the lamina propria under the columnar villus epithelium of the small bowel extend processes across this epithelium and capture bacteria, but previous studies provided limited information on the nature of the stimuli,(More)
In contrast to naïve T cells that recognize short antigen-derived peptides displayed by specialized antigen-presenting cells, immunoglobulin receptors of B lymphocytes primarily recognize intact proteins. How and where within a lymph node such unprocessed antigens become available for naïve B cell recognition is not clear. We used two-photon intravital(More)
Generation of long-term antibody-mediated immunity depends on the germinal centre reaction, which requires cooperation between antigen-specific T and B lymphocytes. In human X-linked lymphoproliferative disease and its gene-targeted mouse model, loss-of-function mutations in signalling lymphocyte activation molecule-associated protein (SAP, encoded by(More)
After entry into lymph nodes (LNs), B cells migrate to follicles, whereas T cells remain in the paracortex, with each lymphocyte type showing apparently random migration within these distinct areas. Other than chemokines, the factors contributing to this spatial segregation and to the observed patterns of lymphocyte movement are poorly characterized. By(More)
CD8+ T cells have a crucial role in resistance to pathogens and can kill malignant cells; however, some critical functions of these lymphocytes depend on helper activity provided by a distinct population of CD4+ T cells. Cooperation between these lymphocyte subsets involves recognition of antigens co-presented by the same dendritic cell, but the frequencies(More)
Cell-fate decisions are controlled typically by conserved receptors that interact with co-evolved ligands. Therefore, the lineage-specific differentiation of immature CD4+ CD8+ T cells into CD4+ or CD8+ mature T cells is unusual in that it is regulated by clonally expressed, somatically generated T-cell receptors (TCRs) of unpredictable fine specificity.(More)
A defining characteristic of the immune system is the constant movement of many of its constituent cells through the secondary lymphoid tissues, mainly the spleen and lymph nodes, where crucial interactions that underlie homeostatic regulation, peripheral tolerance and the effective development of adaptive immune responses take place. What has only recently(More)
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules are highly polymorphic proteins that bind and present foreign peptides to the clonally distributed alphabeta receptors (TCR) of T lymphocytes. As a population, the immature T lymphocytes generated in the thymus express a very diverse set of TCR specificities. A process of positive selection(More)
Mutations in the gene encoding NLRP3 cause a spectrum of autoinflammatory diseases known as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS). NLRP3 is a key component of one of several distinct cytoplasmic multiprotein complexes (inflammasomes) that mediate the maturation of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) by activating caspase-1. Although(More)