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The application of human embryonic stem (ES) cells in medicine and biology has an inherent reliance on understanding the starting cell population. Human ES cells differ from mouse ES cells and the specific embryonic origin of both cell types is unclear. Previous work suggested that mouse ES cells could only be obtained from the embryo before implantation in(More)
To understand the mechanism of the sequential restriction of multipotency of stem cells during development, we have established culture conditions that allow the differentiation of neuroepithelial precursor cells from embryonic stem (ES) cells. A highly enriched population of neuroepithelial precursor cells derived from ES cells proliferates in the presence(More)
Neurons of adult brain are able to remodel their synaptic connections in response to various stimuli. Modifications of the peridendritic environment, including the extracellular matrix, are likely to play a role during synapse remodeling. Proteolytic disassembly of ECM is a complex process using the regulated actions of specific extracellular proteinases.(More)
Parkinson disease affects more than 1% of the population over 60 y old. The dominant models for Parkinson disease are based on the use of chemical toxins to kill dopamine neurons, but do not address the risk factors that normally increase with age. Forkhead transcription factors are critical regulators of survival and longevity. The forkhead transcription(More)
The hope of developing new transplantation therapies for degenerative diseases is limited by inefficient stem cell growth and immunological incompatibility with the host. Here we show that Notch receptor activation induces the expression of the specific target genes hairy and enhancer of split 3 (Hes3) and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) through rapid activation of(More)
The floor plate, an essential ventral midline organizing center that produces the morphogen Shh, has distinct properties along the neuraxis. The neurogenic potential of the floor plate and its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Using Shh as a driver for lineage analysis, we found that the mouse midbrain, but not the hindbrain, floor plate is neurogenic,(More)
Nucleostemin (NS) was identified as a stem cell- and cancer cell-enriched nucleolar protein that controls the proliferation of these cells. Here, we report the mechanism that regulates its dynamic shuttling between the nucleolus and nucleoplasm. The nucleolar residence of nucleostemin involves a transient and a long-term binding by the basic and GTP-binding(More)
In excitatory synapses of the brain, specific receptors in the postsynaptic membrane lie ready to respond to the release of the neurotransmitter glutamate from the presynaptic terminal. Upon stimulation, these gluta-mate receptors activate multiple biochemical pathways that transduce signals into the postsynaptic neuron. Different kinds of synaptic activity(More)
Pluripotent stem cell lines can be derived from blastocyst embryos, which yield embryonic stem cell lines (ES cells), as well as the postimplantation epiblast, which gives rise to epiblast stem cell lines (EpiSCs). Remarkably, ES cells and EpiSCs display profound differences in the combination of growth factors that maintain their pluripotent state.(More)
The ability of stem cells to generate distinct fates is critical for the generation of cellular diversity during development. Central nervous system (CNS) stem cells respond to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 by differentiating into a wide variety of dorsal CNS and neural crest cell types. We show that distinct mechanisms are responsible for the(More)