Ronald M. Baldwin

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OBJECTIVE The authors previously observed an increase in striatal dopamine transmission following amphetamine challenge in 15 untreated patients with schizophrenia compared to 15 matched healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to replicate this finding in a new cohort of schizophrenic patients and healthy subjects. METHOD Fifteen patients with(More)
The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia proposes that hyperactivity of dopaminergic transmission is associated with this illness, but direct observation of abnormalities of dopamine function in schizophrenia has remained elusive. We used a newly developed single photon emission computerized tomography method to measure amphetamine-induced dopamine release(More)
Dopamine (DA) has long been implicated in impulsivity, but the precise mechanisms linking human variability in DA signaling to differences in impulsive traits remain largely unknown. By using a dual-scan positron emission tomography approach in healthy human volunteers with amphetamine and the D2/D3 ligand [18F]fallypride, we found that higher levels of(More)
The impact of endogenous dopamine on in vivo measurement of D2 receptors in humans was evaluated with single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) by comparing the binding potential (BP) of the selective D2 radiotracer [123I]IBZM before and after acute dopamine depletion. Dopamine depletion was achieved by administration of the tyrosine(More)
Psychopathy is a personality disorder that is strongly linked to criminal behavior. Using [(18)F]fallypride positron emission tomography and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that impulsive-antisocial psychopathic traits selectively predicted nucleus accumbens dopamine release and reward anticipation-related neural(More)
The competition between endogenous transmitters and radiolabeled ligands for in vivo binding to neuroreceptors might provide a method to measure endogenous transmitter release in the living human brain with noninvasive techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). In this study, we validated(More)
UNLABELLED This study assesses the feasibility of using SPECT to image intrasynaptic dopamine release in human striatum following dextroamphetamine sulfate (d-amphetamine) challenge testing. METHODS A bolus plus constant infusion administration schedule of the D2 receptor radiotracer [123I]iodobenzamide ([123I]IBZM) was used to obtain a stable baseline(More)
Recent studies suggest that subtype-selective activators of M(1)/M(4) muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) may offer a novel approach for the treatment of psychotic symptoms associated with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Previously developed muscarinic agonists have provided clinical data in support of this hypothesis, but failed in clinical(More)
Nicotine, the addictive chemical in tobacco smoke, initiates its actions in brain through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In particular, nAChRs containing beta2-subunits (beta2*-nAChRs) the most prevalent subtype, mediate the reinforcing properties of nicotine. We hypothesized that abnormal numbers of beta2*-nAChRs during early abstinence(More)
UNLABELLED A polymorphism involving a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) has been described in the 3' untranslated region of the gene (SLC6A3) coding for the dopamine transporter (DAT). This polymorphism has 2 common alleles, designated as 10-repeat (*10R) and 9-repeat (*9R), that have been linked with several human clinical phenotypes. Previous(More)