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We introduce a large equivalence class of graph properties, all of which are shared by so-called random graphs. Unlike random graphs, however, it is often relatively easy to verify that a particular family of graphs possesses some property in this class.

A classical topic in combinatorics is the study of problems of the following type: What are the maximum families F of subsets of a finite set with the property that the intersection of any two sets in the family satisfies some specified condition? Typical restrictions on the intersections F n F of any F and F' in F are: (i) FnF'# 0, where all FEF have k… (More)

For a ®xed graph H, the Ramsey number r (H) is de®ned to be the least integer N such that in any 2-coloring of the edges of the complete graph K N , some monochromatic copy of H is always formed. Let r(n, Á) denote the class of graphs H having n vertices and maximum degree at most Á. It was shown by Chvata Â l, Ro È dl, Szemere Â di, and Trotter that for… (More)

We show that the STEINER TREE problem and TRAVELING SALESMAN problem for points in the plane are NP-complete when distances are measured either by the rectilinear (Manhattan) metric or by a natural discretized version of the Euclidean metric. Our proofs also indicate that the problems are NP-hard if the distance measure is the (unmodified) Euclidean metric.… (More)

The covering radius R of a code is the maximal distance of any vector from the code. This work gives a number of new results concerning t[ n, k], the minimal covering radius of any binary code of length n and dimension k. For example r[ n, 41 and t [ n, 51 are determined exactly, and reasonably tight bounds on t[ n, k] are obtained for any k when n is… (More)