Ronald J. Waldman

Learn More
Populations affected by armed conflict have experienced severe public health consequences mediated by population displacement, food scarcity, and the collapse of basic health services, giving rise to the term complex humanitarian emergencies. These public health effects have been most severe in underdeveloped countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.(More)
Mortality rates among children and the absolute number of children dying annually in developing countries have declined considerably over the past few decades. However, the gains made have not been distributed evenly: childhood mortality remains higher among poorer people and the gap between rich and poor has grown. Several poor countries, and some poorer(More)
The number of refugees and internally displaced persons in need of protection and assistance has increased from 30 million in 1990 to more than 43 million today. War and civil strife have been largely responsible for this epidemic of mass migration that has affected almost every region of the world, including Europe. Since 1990, crude death rates (CDRs)(More)
The effects of social support and traumatic experiences on mental health in conflict situations may be different by gender. The Kosovo Emergency Department Study was conducted in July and August 2001 to assess mental health 2 years after the end of the war in Kosovo. Of 306 emergency department patients (87.7% response rate), all were ethnic Albanian, 97.4%(More)
Major advances have been made during the past decade in the way the international community responds to the health and nutrition consequences of complex emergencies. The public health and clinical response to diseases of acute epidemic potential has improved, especially in camps. Case-fatality rates for severely malnourished children have plummeted because(More)
Violent conflicts claim lives, disrupt livelihoods, and halt delivery of essential services, such as health care and education. Health systems are often devastated in conflicts as health professionals flee, infrastructure is destroyed, and the supply of drugs and supplies is halted. We propose that early reconstruction of a functioning, equitable health(More)
Few studies have determined risk factors for diarrheal deaths in developing areas. The Ministry of Health of Lesotho, southern Africa, reported that 9.5% of children under five years of age who were hospitalized for diarrhea in 1984 died. Of 104 children under five years of age who died during hospitalization for diarrhea, 85% were aged 24 months or younger(More)
A review of mortality data from refugee camps in Thailand (1979-80), Somalia (1980-85), and Sudan (1984-85) indicates that crude mortality rates (CMRs) were up to 40 times higher than those for the non-refugee populations in the host countries. In eastern Sudan, approximately 5% of the population of eight camps died in the first 3 months of the emergency(More)
BACKGROUND In June 1988 a cholera epidemic occurred in a Mozambican refugee population resettling in southern Malawi. METHODS A case-control study was conducted to determine possible risk factors for disease. The characteristics of 48 refugee households with any member(s) hospitalized for suspected cholera were compared to 441 randomly sampled refugee(More)