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Chromosome segregation during mitosis depends on the action of the mitotic spindle, a self-organizing, bipolar protein machine which uses microtubules (MTs) and their associated motors. Members of the BimC subfamily of kinesin-related MT-motor proteins are believed to be essential for the formation and functioning of a normal bipolar spindle. Here we report(More)
RecBCD enzyme is a processive DNA helicase and nuclease that participates in the repair of chromosomal DNA through homologous recombination. We have visualized directly the movement of individual RecBCD enzymes on single molecules of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Detection involves the optical trapping of solitary, fluorescently tagged dsDNA molecules that(More)
Rad54 protein plays an important role in the recombinational repair of double-strand DNA (dsDNA) breaks. It is a dsDNA-dependent ATPase that belongs to the Swi2/Snf2 family of chromatin-remodeling proteins. Rad54 remodels (1) DNA structure, (2) chromatin structure, and (3) Rad51-dsDNA complexes. These abilities imply that Rad54 moves along DNA. Here, we(More)
Kinesin is a microtubule-based motor protein that uses energy released from Mg-ATP hydrolysis to generate force for the movement of intracellular membranes towards the fast-growing (plus) ends of microtubule tracks in cells. Kinesin-driven microtubule movement can be visualized and quantified using light microscope motility assays but our understanding of(More)
RecBCD enzyme is a heterotrimeric helicase/nuclease that initiates homologous recombination at double-stranded DNA breaks. Several of its activities are regulated by the DNA sequence chi (5'-GCTGGTGG-3'), which is recognized in cis by the translocating enzyme. When RecBCD enzyme encounters chi, the intensity and polarity of its nuclease activity are(More)
Escherichia coli RecA is essential for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination. Repair requires the formation of a RecA nucleoprotein filament. Previous studies have indicated a mechanism of filament assembly whereby slow nucleation of RecA protein on DNA is followed by rapid growth. However, many aspects of this process remain(More)
Taylor and Smith, 2003). The biochemical regulation by χ has the interesting and curious property that the changes elicited persist for the duration of the translo-Summary cation event in cis, but the phenomenon is fully reversible and catalytic after dissociation of RecBCD from the In Escherichia coli, ␹ (5؅-GCTGGTGG-3؅) is a recombi-χ-containing DNA(More)
Rad51 protein (Rad51) is central to recombinational repair of double-strand DNA breaks. It polymerizes onto DNA and promotes strand exchange between homologous chromosomes. We visualized the real-time assembly and disassembly of human Rad51 nucleoprotein filaments on double-stranded DNA by single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. Rad51 assembly extends the(More)
RecBCD is a DNA helicase comprising two motor subunits, RecB and RecD. Recognition of the recombination hotspot, chi, causes RecBCD to pause and reduce translocation speed. To understand this control of translocation, we used single-molecule visualization to compare RecBCD to the RecBCD(K177Q) mutant with a defective RecD motor. RecBCD(K177Q) paused at chi(More)
The breast cancer susceptibility protein, BRCA2, is essential for recombinational DNA repair. BRCA2 delivers RAD51 to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) breaks through interaction with eight conserved, approximately 35 amino acid motifs, the BRC repeats. Here we show that the solitary BRC4 promotes assembly of RAD51 onto single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), but not dsDNA,(More)