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Proprioceptive sensory feedback is utilized by the central nervous system for conscious appreciation of the position and movement of the body and limbs. In patients with the hypermobility syndrome (HMS), it has been suggested that there is alteration of proprioceptive acuity. Proprioceptive performance of the knee joint was investigated in 10 female(More)
A hybrid functional electrical stimulation (FES) orthosis is described, comprising a rigid ankle-foot brace, a multi-channel FES stimulator with surface electrodes, body mounted sensors, a 'rule-based' controller and an electro-cutaneous display for supplementary sensory feedback. The mechanical brace provides stability, without FES activation of muscles,(More)
Injection of local anaesthetic into the knee joint cavity in a series of 14 cats produced obvious abnormalities of posture and gait in half the animals. However, on employing a more sensitive testing procedure, 7 out of 8 animals exhibited reduced proprioceptive acuity after knee joint anaesthesia, and all animals tested showed marked reduction in motor(More)
In the restoration of gait for paraplegics using functional electrical stimulation, the method most commonly used to produce hip flexion for the swing phase of gait has been the elicitation of the flexion withdrawal response. Several problems have been noted with the response: there is a decrease in the magnitude of the hip flexion to repeated stimuli(More)
In order to develop a control system for electrical stimulation of paralysed muscle and improve muscle resistance to fatigue, it is useful to investigate the possibilities of simulating the control systems of the normal body. One way is the periodic shifting of stimulation from one muscle to another. This technique is called sequential stimulation and(More)
In decerebrate cats with intact innervation of the fore- and hindlimbs, flexion reflexes are most easily elicited in forelimb muscles when the hindlimb is extended, and hindlimb flexion reflexes are most easily elicited when the forelimbs are extended. After intra-articular injection of local anaesthetic, this modulation of reflex excitability is abolished.(More)
Pressures were recorded in ten knees from five subjects with informed consent. Resting intra-articular pressures were found to be sub-atmospheric with a mean value of -5 +/- 1.5 mmHg (S.E. of mean). There was little variation in intra-articular pressure with changing joint angle in the normal joint. Infusion of as small a volume as 5 ml of sterile saline(More)
1. Changes in excitability of reflex arcs mediating flexion withdrawal ad crossed extensor reflexes have been examined in decerebrate cats. 2. The excitability of flexion withdrawal and crossed extensor reflexes was shown to be modulated by knee joint position. Flexion withdrawal reflexes were most easily elicited when the knee was extended and crossed(More)
The effect of measuring bite force with different patterns of transducer on different occasions was studied. Maximum voluntary bite force was measured in eight volunteers. Three transducer positions, each with a different pattern of transducer, were used; between the anterior teeth, between the second premolar and the first molar on one side and between the(More)