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The immune system, despite its complexity, is maintained at a relative steady state. Mechanisms involved in maintaining lymphocyte homeostasis are poorly understood; however, recent availability of transgenic (Tg) and knockout mouse models with altered balance of lymphocyte cell populations suggest that cytokines play a major role in maintaining lymphocyte(More)
Clinical trials have indicated that autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can persistently suppress inflammatory disease activity in a subset of patients with severe multiple sclerosis (MS), but the mechanism has remained unclear. To understand whether the beneficial effects on the course of disease are mediated by lympho-depletive(More)
Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a homeostatic cytokine for resting T cells with increasing serum and tissue levels during T cell depletion. In preclinical studies, IL-7 therapy exerts marked stimulating effects on T cell immune reconstitution in mice and primates. First-in-human clinical studies of recombinant human IL-7 (rhIL-7) provided the opportunity to(More)
Cell-cell adhesion is essential for many immunological functions, including interaction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) with their targets. We have explored CTL-target interactions using well-characterized cloned human CTLs. Conjugate formation between these CTLs and many antigen-negative targets is almost as efficient as with specific target cells, but(More)
Destruction of the host intestinal epithelium by donor effector T cell populations is a hallmark of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. We demonstrate that CD8(+) T cells expressing CD103, an integrin conferring specificity for the epithelial ligand E-cadherin, play a critical role in this process. A TCR(More)
Niche availability provided by stromal cells is critical to thymus function. Thymi with diminished function contain fewer stromal cells, whereas thymi with robust function contain proliferating stromal cell populations. Here, we show that the thymus, brain, and testes-associated gene (Tbata; also known as SPATIAL) regulates thymic epithelial cell (TEC)(More)
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) remains a major cause of non-relapse morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Currently there are no accepted measures of cGVHD activity to aid in clinical management and disease staging. We analyzed clinical markers of inflammation in the sera of patients with established(More)
Veto cell-mediated suppression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses has been proposed as one mechanism by which self-tolerance is maintained in mature T cell populations. We have previously reported that murine bone marrow cells cultured in the presence of high-dose interleukin 2 (IL-2) (activated bone marrow cells [ABM]) mediate strong veto suppressor(More)
To enhance the therapeutic index of allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT), we immunized 10 HLA-matched sibling donors before stem cell collection with recipient-derived clonal myeloma Ig, idiotype (Id), as a tumor antigen, conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Vaccinations were safe in donors and recipients. Donor-derived KLH- and Id-specific(More)