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The branched-chain amino acids are synthesized by plants, fungi and microorganisms, but not by animals. Therefore, the enzymes of this pathway are potential target sites for the development of antifungal agents, antimicrobials and herbicides. Most research has focused upon the first enzyme in this biosynthetic pathway, acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS)(More)
The sulfonylureas and imidazolinones are potent commercial herbicide families. They are among the most popular choices for farmers worldwide, because they are nontoxic to animals and highly selective. These herbicides inhibit branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis in plants by targeting acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 2.2.1.6). This report describes the(More)
Three-dimensional structures have been determined for 13 different enzymes that use thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) as a cofactor. These enzymes fall into five families, where members within a family have similar structures. In different families, there are similarities between some domains that clearly point to a common ancestor for all of these enzymes. Where(More)
Plants and microorganisms synthesize valine, leucine and isoleucine via a common pathway in which the first reaction is catalysed by acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 2.2.1.6). This enzyme is of substantial importance because it is the target of several herbicides, including all members of the popular sulfonylurea and imidazolinone families. However, the(More)
Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) catalyses the first step in the synthesis of the branched-chain amino acids and is the target of several classes of herbicides. Four mutants (A122V, W574S, W574L and S653N) of the AHAS gene from Arabidopsis thaliana were constructed, expressed in Escherichia coli, and the enzymes were purified. Each mutant form and wild-type(More)
When the progress curve for an enzyme catalysed reaction follows the integrated Michaelis-Menten equation, the maximum velocity and Michaelis constant can be determined from a single such curve. In this paper, an experimental design for collecting the data is proposed which is close to optimum in the sense that it produces the smallest standard error in the(More)
Erwinia amylovora is a necrogenic bacterium that causes fire blight of the Maloideae subfamily of Roseacae, such as apple and pear. It provokes necrosis in aerial parts of susceptible host plants and the typical hypersensitive reaction in non-host plants. The secreted harpin, HrpN ea, is able by itself to induce an active cell death in non-host plants. Ion(More)
Sulfonation catalyzed by sulfotransferase enzymes plays an important role in chemical defense mechanisms against various xenobiotics but also bioactivates carcinogens. A major human sulfotransferase, SULT1A1, metabolizes and/or bioactivates many endogenous compounds and is implicated in a range of cancers because of its ability to modify diverse promutagen(More)
Human SULT1A1 is primarily responsible for sulfonation of xenobiotics, including the activation of promutagens, and it has been implicated in several forms of cancer. Human SULT1A3 has been shown to be the major sulfotransferase that sulfonates dopamine. These two enzymes shares 93% amino acid sequence identity and have distinct but overlapping substrate(More)
The rates of most physical, chemical and biological processes vary with temperature and numerous instances have been reported in which Arrhenius plots of the experimental data appear to consist of two straight line segments joined by a relatively sharp break. An empirical model, based on a general hyperbola, is shown to be applicable to such systems; a(More)