Ronald G. Duggleby

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Sulfonation is an important reaction in the metabolism of numerous xenobiotics, drugs, and endogenous compounds. A supergene family of enzymes called sulfotransferases (SULTs) catalyze this reaction. In most cases, the addition of a sulfonate moiety to a compound increases its water solubility and decreases its biological activity. However, many of these(More)
The sulfonylureas and imidazolinones are potent commercial herbicide families. They are among the most popular choices for farmers worldwide, because they are nontoxic to animals and highly selective. These herbicides inhibit branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis in plants by targeting acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 2.2.1.6). This report describes the(More)
This review highlights recent research on the properties and functions of the enzyme transketolase, which requires thiamin diphosphate and a divalent metal ion for its activity. The transketolase-catalysed reaction is part of the pentose phosphate pathway, where transketolase appears to control the non-oxidative branch of this pathway, although the overall(More)
Three-dimensional structures have been determined for 13 different enzymes that use thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) as a cofactor. These enzymes fall into five families, where members within a family have similar structures. In different families, there are similarities between some domains that clearly point to a common ancestor for all of these enzymes. Where(More)
Sulfonation catalyzed by sulfotransferase enzymes plays an important role in chemical defense mechanisms against various xenobiotics but also bioactivates carcinogens. A major human sulfotransferase, SULT1A1, metabolizes and/or bioactivates many endogenous compounds and is implicated in a range of cancers because of its ability to modify diverse promutagen(More)
Sulfonation is an important metabolic process involved in the excretion and in some cases activation of various endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. This reaction is catalyzed by a family of enzymes named sulfotransferases. The cytosolic human sulfotransferases SULT1A1 and SULT1A3 have overlapping yet distinct substrate specificities. SULT1A1 favors simple(More)
Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) catalyses the first step in the synthesis of the branched-chain amino acids and is the target of several classes of herbicides. Four mutants (A122V, W574S, W574L and S653N) of the AHAS gene from Arabidopsis thaliana were constructed, expressed in Escherichia coli, and the enzymes were purified. Each mutant form and wild-type(More)
Plants and microorganisms synthesize valine, leucine and isoleucine via a common pathway in which the first reaction is catalysed by acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 2.2.1.6). This enzyme is of substantial importance because it is the target of several herbicides, including all members of the popular sulfonylurea and imidazolinone families. However, the(More)
Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 4.1.3.18) catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids. In bacteria, the enzyme has a large subunit containing the catalytic machinery and a small subunit with a regulatory role. In eucaryotes, the evidence for a regulatory subunit is largely indirect and circumstantial. We investigated(More)