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Sixty-four compounds with diverse structures were used in evaluation of intrinsic clearance by various hepatocyte preparations from rats, dogs, monkeys, and humans. Intrinsic clearance (CL(int)) was calculated from the ratio of the initial amount of the test compound minus the amount remaining after 2 h of incubation and the corresponding area under the(More)
1. The effects of tangeretin, green tea flavonoids, and other flavonoids on 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD; 450 1A), 7-pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (PROD; P450 2B), p-nitrophenol hydroxylase (PNPH, P450 2E1), and erythromycin-N-demethylase (ERDM; P450 3A) were examined in induced rat liver microsomes. EROD, PNPH, ERDM, and nifedipine oxidase (NIFO;(More)
The necessity of conducting traditional radiolabeled absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) studies in animals during development of new investigative agents has been questioned in a recent review. We present a compilation of the benefits of such studies in the understanding of the in vivo pharmacological activity and disposition(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the major cause of chronic liver disease, leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which affects more than 170 million people worldwide. Currently the only therapeutic regimens are subcutaneous interferon-alpha or polyethylene glycol (PEG)-interferon-alpha alone or in combination with oral ribavirin. Although(More)
  • R E White
  • 2000
The application of rapid methods currently used for screening discovery drug candidates for metabolism and pharmacokinetic characteristics is discussed. General considerations are given for screening in this context, including the criteria for good screens, the use of counterscreens, the proper sequencing of screens, ambiguity in the interpretation of(More)
As part of a program to discover potent antihypertensive analogues of diltiazem (3a), we prepared 1-benzazepin-2-ones (4). Benzazepinones competitively displace radiolabeled diltiazem, and show the same absolute stereochemical preferences at the calcium channel receptor protein. Derivatives of 4 containing a trifluoromethyl substituent in the fused aromatic(More)
A novel in vitro Caco-2 hepatocyte hybrid system was set up and tested for its ability to predict the oral bioavailability (F) in humans of 24 randomly chosen marketed drugs. Caco-2 cells were cultured on the transwell filters to form tight junctions. Pooled cryopreserved human hepatocytes were placed in the basolateral receiver compartment. To evaluate the(More)
Cassette dosing is a procedure for higher-throughput screening in drug discovery to rapidly assess pharmacokinetics of large numbers of candidate compounds. In this procedure, multiple compounds are administered simultaneously to a single animal. Blood samples are collected, and the plasma samples obtained are analyzed by means of an assay method such as(More)
Several non-beta-lactam compounds were active against various gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains. The MICs of arylalkylidene rhodanines and arylalkylidene iminothiazolidin-4-ones were lower than those of ampicillin and cefotaxime for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MI339 and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium EF12. Several(More)
Cassette dosing is a procedure that is used for rapidly assessing the pharmacokinetics of a series of discovery drug candidates by dosing a mixture of compounds rather than a single compound. Cassette dosing has advantages and disadvantages associated with its use, which leads to controversy about how and if it should be used. To assess the current(More)