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OBJECTIVES The objective of this trial was to investigate the safety and preliminary effectiveness of a daily dose of 300 mg of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) versus placebo in preventing HIV infection in women. DESIGN This was a phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING The study was conducted between June 2004 and March(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this trial was to determine the effectiveness of 1.0% C31G (SAVVY) in preventing male-to-female vaginal transmission of HIV infection among women at high risk. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS This was a Phase 3, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Participants made up to 12 monthly visits for HIV testing, adverse(More)
BACKGROUND Nonoxynol 9 is a proved spermicide, but whether it is also a microbicide is uncertain. A truly effective vaginal microbicide would reduce the susceptibility of women to sexually transmitted diseases, including infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS We enrolled 1292 HIV-negative female sex workers in Cameroon and enrolled(More)
The authors conducted a single-dose phase I local toxicity study of the effects of frequent insertion of nonoxynol-9 (N-9) on the lower genital tract to determine whether a phase II dose-ranging study is warranted. Fourteen women used 150 mg of N-9 cumulatively four times a day for 14 days. Epithelial disruption of the cervix and vagina, the main outcome of(More)
The objective of the study was to assess the symptoms and signs of genital irritation produced by different frequencies of nonoxynol-9 (N-9) use. Thirty-five women were randomized to each of 5 groups and used a vaginal suppository for 2 weeks. Group 1: N-9 once every other day; Group 2: N-9 once a day; Group 3: N-9 twice a day; Group 4: N-9 4 times a day;(More)
In a double-blind comparative trial, 100 men with uncomplicated gonorrhea caused by beta-lactamase-negative Neisseria gonorrhoeae were treated with a single 0.25-g dose of ciprofloxacin administered orally or with 3.5 g of ampicillin plus 1.0 g of probenecid administered orally. Urethral infection was eradicated in all 49 men treated with ciprofloxacin and(More)
CONTEXT Nonoxynol-9 has been suggested as a vaginal microbicide to protect against common sexually transmitted infections. OBJECTIVE To compare nonoxynol-9 gel and condom use (gel group) vs condom use alone (condom group) for the prevention of male-to-female transmission of urogenital gonococcal and chlamydial infection. DESIGN AND SETTING Randomized(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To compare the association between different measures of condom use and prevalent HIV infection. DESIGN Randomised cross sectional study to assess association between HIV infection and different measures of self reported condom use. Female sex workers were randomised to one of five different face to face questionnaires on condom use. Three(More)
14 of 280 young, sexually active men with acute urinary symptoms had pronounced bacteriuria--13 with Escherichia coli and 1 with Staphylococcus saprophyticus. 12 of the 14 bacteriuric men were homosexual or bisexual, compared with 3 of 22 non-bacteriuric control patients. Pyuria and symptoms of cystitis were more common in the bacteriuric men, and these men(More)