Ronald D. Williams

Learn More
The increasing interconnectivity of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) networks has exposed them to a wide range of network security problems. This paper provides an overview of all the crucial research issues that are involved in strengthening the cyber security of SCADA networks. The paper describes the general architecture of SCADA networks(More)
There are several attacks that exploit the presence of side channels in hardware implementations of cryptographic algorithms to extract secret data. Differential power analysis (DPA) and simple power analysis (SPA) attacks sense the power consumption of the hardware to extract the secret cryptographic key. These attacks either directly examine the power(More)
Security evaluation of a system is a complicated problem. The majority of the recent efforts in Security evaluation involve for discovering well-known Vulnerabilities. Discovering unidentified Vulnerabilities yet mostly remains a subjective procedure. The procedure knows how to be improved by considering the Characteristics and behavior of well-known(More)
The CPU schedulers in general-purpose operating systems are designed to provide fast response time for interactive applications and high throughput for batch applications. The heuristics used to achieve these goals do not lend themselves to scheduling real-time applications, nor do they meet other scheduling requirements such as coordinating scheduling(More)
A major effon 2: improving productivit)' at TRW led to the creation of thf !OOftware productivity project, or SPP, in J 981. The major thrust of this project is the establishment of a software development cn\oironment to suppon projtct acthdties; this environment is caUed the software productivity system, or SPS. It involves a set of strategies, induding(More)
Some of the more widely used serial automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) algorithms and their stability for implementation on a parallel machine are discussed. The basic classes of parallel machines are examined to determine what characteristics they require of an algorithm if they are to implement it efficiently. Several techniques that have been used(More)
This paper presents an overview of the TRW Software Productivity System (SPS), an integrated software support environment based on the Unix operating system, a wide range of TRW software tools, and a wideband local network. Section 2 summarizes the quantitative and qualitative requirements analysis upon which the system is based. Section 3 describes the key(More)
BACKGROUND The combined-use of alcohol and energy drinks is an emerging public health issue. This investigation examined differences in drinking and driving behaviors among combined-users (CU) and participants who consumed alcohol-only (AO). OBJECTIVES This study was specifically designed to investigate potential differences in drinker's perceptions of(More)
-The sigmoid fimction & very widely used as a neuron activation fimction in artificial neural networks. which makes its attributes a matter o f some interest. This paper presents some general results on the derivatives o f the sigmoid. These results relate the coefficients o f various derivatives to standard number sequences from combinatorial theory, and(More)
The CANDY Project (Communication Assistance to Negate Disabilities in Youth) seeks to provide a realtime speech synthesizer for disabled individuals, particularly non-vocal children with cerebral palsy. Existing speech synthesizers convert user input into discrete linguistic or phonetic symbols which are converted into sound. Complicated sentences must be(More)