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To understand the mechanism of the sequential restriction of multipotency of stem cells during development, we have established culture conditions that allow the differentiation of neuroepithelial precursor cells from embryonic stem (ES) cells. A highly enriched population of neuroepithelial precursor cells derived from ES cells proliferates in the presence(More)
Standard cell culture systems impose environmental oxygen (O(2)) levels of 20%, whereas actual tissue O(2) levels in both developing and adult brain are an order of magnitude lower. To address whether proliferation and differentiation of CNS precursors in vitro are influenced by the O(2) environment, we analyzed embryonic day 12 rat mesencephalic precursor(More)
Neurotrophins and their receptors are widespread in the developing and mature CNS. Identifying the differentiation state of neurotrophin-responsive cells provides a basis for understanding the developmental functions of these factors. Studies using dissociated and organotypic cultures of rat cerebellum demonstrated that the neurotrophins brain-derived(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have diverse and sometimes paradoxical effects during embryonic development. To determine the mechanisms underlying BMP actions, we analyzed the expression and function of two BMP receptors, BMPR-IA and BMPR-IB, in neural precursor cells in vitro and in vivo. Neural precursor cells always express Bmpr-1a, but Bmpr-1b is(More)
In vitro expansion of central nervous system (CNS) precursors might overcome the limited availability of dopaminergic neurons in transplantation for Parkinson's disease, but generating dopaminergic neurons from in vitro dividing precursors has proven difficult. Here a three-dimensional cell differentiation system was used to convert precursor cells derived(More)
Cell cultures were used to analyze the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in the development of synaptic transmission. Neurons obtained from embryonic day 18 (E18) rat hippocampus and cultured for 2 weeks exhibited extensive spontaneous synaptic activity. By comparison, neurons obtained from E16 hippocampus expressed(More)
During embryogenesis, pluripotent stem cells segregate into daughter lineages of progressively restricted developmental potential. In vitro, this process has been mimicked by the controlled differentiation of embryonic stem cells into neural precursors. To explore the developmental potential of these cell-culture-derived precursors in vivo, we have(More)
Nucleostemin (NS) was identified as a stem cell- and cancer cell-enriched nucleolar protein that controls the proliferation of these cells. Here, we report the mechanism that regulates its dynamic shuttling between the nucleolus and nucleoplasm. The nucleolar residence of nucleostemin involves a transient and a long-term binding by the basic and GTP-binding(More)
Proliferating precursors to the distinct cell types constituting the mammalian brain can be identified by the presence of the nestin intermediate filament. We report the establishment of a nestin-positive cell line, HiB5, from embryonic precursor cells to the rat hippocampus. Since it was immortalized using the temperature-sensitive allele tsA58 of SV40(More)
Multipotential stem cells have been isolated from the developing and adult CNS. Similar identified factors control the differentiation of these cells. A striking example is the instructive action of CNTF/LIF activating the JAK/STAT pathway to induce astrocytic differentiation in both fetal and adult CNS stem cells. Here we show that E12 cortical precursors(More)