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Insulin receptors are abundant in the central nervous system, but their roles remain elusive. Here we show that the insulin receptor functions in axon guidance. The Drosophila insulin receptor (DInR) is required for photoreceptor-cell (R-cell) axons to find their way from the retina to the brain during development of the visual system. DInR functions as a(More)
Protein kinase inhibitors have applications as anticancer therapeutic agents and biological tools in cell signaling. Based on a phosphoryl transfer mechanism involving a dissociative transition state, a potent and selective bisubstrate inhibitor for the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase was synthesized by linking ATPgammaS to a peptide substrate analog via a(More)
Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) exerts a positive effect on the transcription of genes coding for several extracellular matrix-related products, including collagen I. We have previously identified a strong TGF-beta 1-responsive element (TbRE) in the upstream promoter sequence of the alpha 2(I) collagen (COL1A2) gene. Our experiments have(More)
The Drosophila homeobox gene fushi tarazu (ftz) is expressed in a highly dynamic striped pattern in early embryos. A key regulatory element that controls the ftz pattern is the ftz proximal enhancer, which mediates positive autoregulation via multiple binding sites for the Ftz protein. In addition, the enhancer is necessary for stripe establishment prior to(More)
Insulin/Insulin-like growth factor signaling regulates homeostasis and growth in mammals, and is implicated in diseases from diabetes to cancer. In Drosophila melanogaster, as in other invertebrates, multiple Insulin-Like Peptides (DILPs) are encoded by a family of related genes. To assess DILPs' physiological roles, we generated small deficiencies that(More)
Organic anion transporters in the kidney proximal tubule play an essential role in eliminating a wide range of organic anions including endogenous compounds, xenobiotics, and their metabolites, thereby preventing their potentially toxic effects within the body. We have previously cloned a cDNA encoding an organic anion transporter from mouse kidney (mOAT)(More)
The insulin receptor and many other protein kinases are activated by relief of intrasteric inhibition that is regulated by reversible phosphorylation. The changes accompanying activation of the insulin receptor's kinase domain were analyzed using steady-state kinetics, viscometric analysis, and equilibrium binding measurements. Peptide phosphorylation(More)
A procedure was developed for the immunoprecipitation of glycosylated and nonglycosylated forms of the insulin receptor and its precursors without prior purification using lectins. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were labeled with [35S]methionine after which 35S-labeled receptor polypeptides were specifically immunoprecipitated and characterized by sodium dodecyl(More)
Peroxisomes have a central function in lipid metabolism, and it is well established that these organelles are inducible by many compounds including fatty acids. Peroxisomes are the sole site for the beta-oxidation of fatty acids in yeast. The first and rate-limiting enzyme of this cycle is fatty acyl-CoA oxidase. The gene encoding this enzyme in(More)