Ronald A Kleinknecht

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Structural equation models were used to examine the relationship of blood, injection, and injury (BII) fears, disgust sensitivity, and trait anxiety to having experienced fainting-related symptoms in 722 university students. The latent variable representing BII fears was highly positively related to faint symptoms whereas that relating to disgust(More)
The present study examined two forms of culturally-defined social anxiety: social anxiety or phobia, as defined by DSM-IV; (i.e., a concern of public scrutiny or embarrassment) and Taijin Kyofusho (TKS), a Japanese form of social anxiety centered around concern for offending others with inappropriate behavior or offensive appearance. These versions of(More)
The relationship of mutilation fear and fainting was examined in 204 students, (103 fainters and 101 non-fainters) by administering a series of questionnaires and a structured interview concerning the history, effects and circumstances of their fear and fainting. Two hundred and sixty of their parents completed the same scales along with a self-report(More)
Anxiety about pain is increasingly recognized as one factor contributing to increased pain perception and pain behavior [McCracken, L. M., Faber S. D., & Janeck A. S. (1998) Pain-related anxiety predicts nonspecific physical complaints in persons with chronic pain. Behavior Research and Therapy, 36, 621-630; McCracken L., & Gross R. (1995). The pain anxiety(More)
The origins of fear and phobia of blood, injury, and injections were investigated in a sample of 128 fearful university students. Based on Mutilation Questionnaire scores, subjects were designated as common fear, high fear, or phobic. Ss reports of their onset experiences obtained from structured interviews were categorized into one or more acquisition(More)
This case report describes the successful treatment of a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using eye movement desensitization (EMD). The client, a 40-year-old male, presented with an 8-year history of PTSD following an incident in which he was shot with a hand gun and left dying. Using EMD treatment, this trauma was quickly desensitized. Two earlier(More)
We treated two medical phobic subjects with eye movement desensitization (EMD). Using detailed images of fear-related events, the treatment design conformed to an additive, within-series phase change to examine enduring effects. Results indicated that both subjects' verbal reports of fear decreased substantially using the EMD procedure. There were no(More)
The published reports of the clinical application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) are reviewed in terms of empirical validity. Case studies, single-subject experiments and group design experiments on clinical problems are evaluated for the effectiveness of the protocol, component effects, comparative effects and treatment fidelity.(More)
Studies evaluating the effects of diazepam (Valium) on psychomotor and cognitive functions are reviewed an integrated. The importance of the full and clear documentation of such drug effects lies in the wide usage of diazepam today for a variety of medical, psychiatric, and dental purposes. The various tasks used to assess drug effects were classified into(More)
Disgust has been implicated in the onset and maintenance of blood-injection-injury (BII) and animal phobias. Research suggests that people with these phobias are characterized by an elevated sensitivity to disgust-evoking stimuli separate from their phobic concerns. The disgust response has been described as the rejection of potential contaminants.(More)