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Genetic algorithms methods utilize the same optimization procedures as natural genetic evolution, in which a population is gradually improved by selection. We have developed a genetic algorithm search procedure suitable for use in protein folding simulations. A population of conformations of the polypeptide chain is maintained, and conformations are changed(More)
The protein folding problem and the notion of NP-completeness and NP-hardness are discussed. A lattice model is suggested to capture the essence of protein folding. For this model we present a proof that finding the lowest free energy conformation belongs to the class of NP-hard problems. The implications of the proof are discussed and we suggest that the(More)
MOTIVATION It is widely known that terminal residues of proteins (i.e. the N- and C-termini) are predominantly located on the surface of proteins and exposed to the solvent. However, there is no good explanation as to the forces driving this phenomenon. The common explanation that terminal residues are charged, and charged residues prefer to be on the(More)
Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) constitute newly discovered noncoding small RNAs, most of which function in guiding modifications such as 2'-O-ribose methylation and pseudouridylation on rRNAs and snRNAs. To investigate the genome organization of Trypanosoma brucei snoRNAs and the pattern of rRNA modifications, we used a whole-genome approach to identify the(More)
MOTIVATION Circular permutation of a protein is a genetic operation in which part of the C-terminal of the protein is moved to its N-terminal. Recently, it has been shown that proteins that undergo engineered circular permutations generally maintain their three dimensional structure and biological function. This observation raises the possibility that(More)
Most eukaryotic C/D small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) guide 2'-O methylation (Nm) on rRNA and are also involved in rRNA processing. The four core proteins that bind C/D snoRNA in Trypanosoma brucei are fibrillarin (NOP1), NOP56, NOP58, and SNU13. Silencing of NOP1 by RNA interference identified rRNA-processing and modification defects that caused lethality.(More)
Predicting the three-dimensional structure of proteins from their linear sequence is one of the major challenges in modern biology. It is widely recognized that one of the major obstacles in addressing this question is that the “standard” computational approaches are not powerful enough to search for the correct structure in the huge conformational space.(More)
Tree structures are useful for describing and analyzing biological objects and processes. Consequently, there is a need to design metrics and algorithms to compare trees. A natural comparison metric is the "Tree Edit Distance," the number of simple edit (insert/delete) operations needed to transform one tree into the other. Rooted-ordered trees, where the(More)
Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are a large group of noncoding RNAs that exist in eukaryotes and archaea and guide modifications such as 2'-O-ribose methylations and pseudouridylation on rRNAs and snRNAs. Recently, we described a genome-wide screening approach with Trypanosoma brucei that revealed over 90 guide RNAs. In this study, we extended this approach(More)