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Photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy allow for the transfer and translation of light energy into a type II chemical reaction. In clinical practice, photosensitizers arise from three families-porphyrins, chlorophylls, and dyes. All clinically successful photosensitizers have the ability to a greater or lesser degree, to target specific tissues or their(More)
A myriad of naturally occurring and synthetic structures are capable of transferring the energy of light. Few, however, allow for this energy transfer to enable a type II photochemical reaction which, as currently practiced, is a fundamental component of photodynamic therapy. Even fewer of these agents, aptly termed photosensitizers, have found success in(More)
Breast cancer is common with over 230,000 new cases diagnosed each year in North America alone. While great strides have been made to achieve excellent cancer control and survival, a significant minority of patients fail locally. While initial salvage to regain disease control is of the utmost importance, it is not universally successful. This leads to a(More)
A majority of potential radioprotective synthetic compounds have demonstrated limited clinical application owing to their inherent toxicity, and thus, the seeking of naturally occurring herbal products, such as ginseng, for their radioprotective capability has become an attractive alternative. In general, ginseng refers to the roots of the species of the(More)
BACKGROUND Chest wall progression of breast carcinoma after failure of salvage surgery, radiation, and chemohormonal therapy is a quagmire with limited therapeutic options. Because photodynamic therapy (PDT) offers excellent results in cutaneous lesions, PDT may play a role in this indication. However, to the authors' knowledge, published data for this(More)
BACKGROUND Chest wall progression of breast carcinoma affects up to 5% of breast cancer patients and is a major source of their pain. Treatment options are limited or may not be offered to these patients. Low-dose Photofrin-induced photodynamic therapy (PDT) offers an excellent clinical response with minimal morbidity. We report our continued experience(More)
BACKGROUND Chest wall recurrence of breast cancer after mastectomy, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy poses a therapeutic dilemma. Further intervention with any or all of these modalities is often futile and morbid. Left untreated, severe pain, infection, and suffering occur. OBJECTIVE To ascertain whether photodynamic therapy may present a palliative(More)
We carried out this study to present proof-of-principal application, showing that by using a global microarray expression analysis, followed by quantitative stem-loop reverse transcriptase in conjunction with TaqMan® polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of micro(mi)RNA genes, on limited number of plasma and tissue samples obtained from 20 individuals(More)
PURPOSE Oligodendroglioma is a rare central nervous system tumor which may occur in pure or mixed histology. This scarcity results in difficulty in defining optimal management, mainly due to a lack of outcome analysis. Results are further complicated because the reported series include patients treated before megavoltage radiation or computed tomographic(More)
The medicinal properties of light-based therapies have been appreciated for millennia. Yet, only in this century have we witnessed the birth of photodynamic therapy (PDT), which over the last few decades has emerged to prominence based on its promising results and clinical simplicity. The fundamental and distinguishing characteristics of PDT are based on(More)