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ATF6 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-regulated transmembrane transcription factor that activates the transcription of ER molecular chaperones. Upon ER stress, ATF6 translocates from the ER to the Golgi where it is processed to its active form. We have found that the ER chaperone BiP/GRP78 binds ATF6 and dissociates in response to ER stress. Loss of(More)
ATF6 is a membrane-bound transcription factor that activates genes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. When unfolded proteins accumulate in the ER, ATF6 is cleaved to release its cytoplasmic domain, which enters the nucleus. Here, we show that ATF6 is processed by Site-1 protease (S1P) and Site-2 protease (S2P), the enzymes that process(More)
ATF6 is a member of the basic-leucine zipper family of transcription factors. It contains a transmembrane domain and is located in membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. ATF6 has been implicated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response pathway since it can activate expression of GRP78 and other genes induced by the ER stress response. ER stress(More)
All eukaryotic cells respond to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by signaling an adaptive pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). In yeast, a type-I ER transmembrane protein kinase, Ire1p, is the proximal sensor of unfolded proteins in the ER lumen that initiates an unconventional splicing reaction on HAC1(More)
ATF6 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transmembrane transcription factor that is activated by the ER stress/unfolded protein response by cleavage of its N-terminal half from the membrane. We find that ER stress induces ATF6 to move from the ER to the Golgi, where it is cut in its luminal domain by site 1 protease. ATF6 contains a single transmembrane domain(More)
Ca(2+) induction of a subset of cellular and viral immediate-early activation genes in lymphocytes has been previously mapped to response elements recognized by the MEF2 family of transcription factors. Here, we demonstrate that Ca(2+) activation of MEF2 response elements in T lymphocytes is mediated in synergy by two Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent enzymes,(More)
T cell receptor (TCR)-induced apoptosis of thymocytes is mediated by calcium-dependent expression of the steroid receptors Nur77 and Nor1. Nur77 expression is controlled by the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), but how MEF2 is activated by calcium signaling is still obscure. Cabin1, a calcineurin inhibitor, was found to regulate MEF2.(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced activation of ATF6, an ER membrane-bound transcription factor, requires a dissociation step from its inhibitory regulator, BiP. It has been generally postulated that dissociation of the BiP-ATF6 complex is a result of the competitive binding of misfolded proteins generated during ER stress. Here we present evidence(More)
Serum response factor (SRF) plays a central role during myogenesis, being required for the expression of striated alpha-actin genes. As shown here, the small GTPase RhoA-dependent activation of SRF results in the expression of muscle-specific genes, thereby promoting myogenic differentiation in myoblast cell lines. Co-expression of activated V14-RhoA and(More)
Serum Response Factor (SRF) is a transcription factor that is required for the expression of many genes including immediate early genes, cytoskeletal genes, and muscle-specific genes. SRF is activated in response to extra-cellular signals by its association with a diverse set of co-activators in different cell types. In the case of the ubiquitously(More)