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ATF6 is a membrane-bound transcription factor that activates genes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. When unfolded proteins accumulate in the ER, ATF6 is cleaved to release its cytoplasmic domain, which enters the nucleus. Here, we show that ATF6 is processed by Site-1 protease (S1P) and Site-2 protease (S2P), the enzymes that process(More)
ATF6 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-regulated transmembrane transcription factor that activates the transcription of ER molecular chaperones. Upon ER stress, ATF6 translocates from the ER to the Golgi where it is processed to its active form. We have found that the ER chaperone BiP/GRP78 binds ATF6 and dissociates in response to ER stress. Loss of(More)
ATF6 is a member of the basic-leucine zipper family of transcription factors. It contains a transmembrane domain and is located in membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. ATF6 has been implicated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response pathway since it can activate expression of GRP78 and other genes induced by the ER stress response. ER stress(More)
All eukaryotic cells respond to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by signaling an adaptive pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). In yeast, a type-I ER transmembrane protein kinase, Ire1p, is the proximal sensor of unfolded proteins in the ER lumen that initiates an unconventional splicing reaction on HAC1(More)
Ca(2+) induction of a subset of cellular and viral immediate-early activation genes in lymphocytes has been previously mapped to response elements recognized by the MEF2 family of transcription factors. Here, we demonstrate that Ca(2+) activation of MEF2 response elements in T lymphocytes is mediated in synergy by two Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent enzymes,(More)
Serum response factor (SRF) plays a central role during myogenesis, being required for the expression of striated alpha-actin genes. As shown here, the small GTPase RhoA-dependent activation of SRF results in the expression of muscle-specific genes, thereby promoting myogenic differentiation in myoblast cell lines. Co-expression of activated V14-RhoA and(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced activation of ATF6, an ER membrane-bound transcription factor, requires a dissociation step from its inhibitory regulator, BiP. It has been generally postulated that dissociation of the BiP-ATF6 complex is a result of the competitive binding of misfolded proteins generated during ER stress. Here we present evidence(More)
In a variety of nerve cells of the brain, action potentials activate gene expression by means of Ca2+ influx. To determine how Ca2+ influx alters gene expression, we have examined the pattern of phosphorylation of a protein that binds to the cAMP response element (CRE). We have found that purified bovine brain CRE-binding protein is a substrate for the(More)
ATF6 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transmembrane transcription factor that is activated by the ER stress/unfolded protein response by cleavage of its N-terminal half from the membrane. We find that ER stress induces ATF6 to move from the ER to the Golgi, where it is cut in its luminal domain by site 1 protease. ATF6 contains a single transmembrane domain(More)
Serum response factor (SRF) is a transcription factor which binds to the serum response element (SRE) in the c-fos promoter. It is required for regulated expression of the c-fos gene as well as other immediate-early genes and some tissue-specific genes. To better understand the regulation of SRF, we used a yeast interaction assay to screen a human HeLa cell(More)