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ATF6 is a membrane-bound transcription factor that activates genes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. When unfolded proteins accumulate in the ER, ATF6 is cleaved to release its cytoplasmic domain, which enters the nucleus. Here, we show that ATF6 is processed by Site-1 protease (S1P) and Site-2 protease (S2P), the enzymes that process(More)
In a variety of nerve cells of the brain, action potentials activate gene expression by means of Ca2+ influx. To determine how Ca2+ influx alters gene expression, we have examined the pattern of phosphorylation of a protein that binds to the cAMP response element (CRE). We have found that purified bovine brain CRE-binding protein is a substrate for the(More)
Megakaryoblastic leukemia 1 (MKL1) is a myocardin-related transcription factor that we found strongly activated serum response element (SRE)-dependent reporter genes through its direct binding to serum response factor (SRF). The c-fos SRE is regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation of ternary complex factor (TCF) but is also regulated(More)
The lateral diffusion coefficients of various epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor mutants with increasing deletions in their carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic domain were compared. A full size cDNA construct of human EGF receptor and different deletion constructs were expressed in monkey COS cells. The EGF receptor mutants expressed on the cell surface of the(More)
The p53 protein is an important determinant in human cancer and regulates the growth of cells in culture. It is known to be a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein with a powerful activation domain, but it has not been established whether it regulates transcription directly. Here we show that intact purified wild-type human and murine p53 proteins strongly(More)
Serum response factor (SRF) is required for the expression of a wide variety of muscle-specific genes that are expressed upon differentiation and is thus required for both striated and smooth muscle differentiation in addition to its role in regulating growth factor-inducible genes. A heart and smooth muscle-specific SRF co-activator, myocardin, has been(More)
The c-jun proto-oncogene encodes a transcription factor which is activated by mitogens both transcriptionally and by phosphorylation by Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). We have investigated the cellular signalling pathways involved in epidermal growth factor (EGF) induction of the c-jun promoter. We find that two sequence elements, which bind ATF1 and MEF2D(More)
BACKGROUND Serum Response Factor (SRF) is a transcription factor that is required for the expression of many genes including immediate early genes, cytoskeletal genes, and muscle-specific genes. SRF is activated in response to extra-cellular signals by its association with a diverse set of co-activators in different cell types. In the case of the(More)
T cell receptor (TCR)-induced apoptosis of thymocytes is mediated by calcium-dependent expression of the steroid receptors Nur77 and Nor1. Nur77 expression is controlled by the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), but how MEF2 is activated by calcium signaling is still obscure. Cabin1, a calcineurin inhibitor, was found to regulate MEF2.(More)