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To achieve desirable biomimetic motion, actuators must be able to reproduce the important features of natural muscle such as power, stress, strain, speed of response, efficiency, and controllability. It is a mistake, however, to consider muscle as only an energy output device. Muscle is multifunctional. In locomotion, muscle often acts as an energy(More)
Using large numbers of micro robots to build unique macrostructures has long been a vision in both popular and scientific media. This paper describes a new class of machines, DiaMagnetic Micro Manipulator (DM3) systems, for controlling many small robots. The robots are diamagnetically levitated with zero wear and zero hysteresis and are driven using(More)
This paper describes a novel clamping technology called compliant electroadhesion, as well as the first application of this technology to wall climbing robots. As the name implies, electroadhesion is an electrically controllable adhesion technology. It involves inducing electrostatic charges on a wall substrate using a power supply connected to compliant(More)
Dielectric elastomer transducers consist of thin electrically insulating elastomeric membranes coated on both sides with compliant electrodes. They are a promising electromechanically active polymer technology that may be used for actuators, strain sensors, and electrical generators that harvest mechanical energy. The rapid development of this field calls(More)
Today, trends in manufacturing automation favor high levels of adaptability and flexibility for rapid product change, customization, and new process integration. This paper looks at a new technology, diamagnetic micro manipulation (DM3), for taking adaptability of automation to a higher level. Experiments reported here show a path to automation systems that(More)
Using diamagnetic micro-manipulation, micro-robots (~10 mm in size) with specialized end-effectors are able to grasp and manipulate small light weight (~mg) carbon fiber elements to construct macroscopic cubic carbon fiber trusses (~1000 parts and 300 mm long) that can achieve mechanical crush performances surpassing those of commercially available aluminum(More)
This paper reports early results of optimal control using diamagnetically levitated robot (DLR) systems. Levitated robots, typically 1-4 mm in size, are driven locally by printed circuit boards (PCBs) with zero friction and near-zero hysteresis. As previously reported [1, 2], these properties give the levitated system excellent repeatability at the micron(More)