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Recent advances in hardware and software have enabled increasingly long molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of biomolecules, exposing certain limitations in the accuracy of the force fields used for such simulations and spurring efforts to refine these force fields. Recent modifications to the Amber and CHARMM protein force fields, for example, have(More)
Although molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of biomolecular systems often run for days to months, many events of great scientific interest and pharmaceutical relevance occur on long time scales that remain beyond reach. We present several new algorithms and implementation techniques that significantly accelerate parallel MD simulations compared with(More)
Under typical viewing conditions, we find it easy to distinguish between different materials, such as metal, plastic, and paper. Recognizing materials from their surface reflectance properties (such as lightness and gloss) is a nontrivial accomplishment because of confounding effects of illumination. However, if subjects have tacit knowledge of the(More)
Most pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) scale poorly to massively parallel high-performance computation because they are designed as sequentially dependent state transformations. We demonstrate that independent, keyed transformations of counters produce a large alternative class of PRNGs with excellent statistical properties (long period, no discernable(More)
The ability to perform long, accurate molecular dynamics (MD) simulations involving proteins and other biological macro-molecules could in principle provide answers to some of the most important currently outstanding questions in the fields of biology, chemistry and medicine. A wide range of biologically interesting phenomena, however, occur over time(More)
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are widely used to study protein motions at an atomic level of detail, but they have been limited to time scales shorter than those of many biologically critical conformational changes. We examined two fundamental processes in protein dynamics--protein folding and conformational change within the folded state--by means of(More)
The mechanism of ion channel voltage gating-how channels open and close in response to voltage changes-has been debated since Hodgkin and Huxley's seminal discovery that the crux of nerve conduction is ion flow across cellular membranes. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we show how a voltage-gated potassium channel (KV) switches between(More)
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are eukaryotic integral membrane proteins that modulate biological function by initiating cellular signalling in response to chemically diverse agonists. Despite recent progress in the structural biology of GPCRs, the molecular basis for agonist binding and allosteric modulation of these proteins is poorly understood.(More)
Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified, exerts many of its physiological actions via activation of a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Although the five mAChR subtypes (M1-M5) share a high degree of sequence homology, they show pronounced differences in G-protein coupling(More)
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can modulate diverse signaling pathways, often in a ligand-specific manner. The full range of functionally relevant GPCR conformations is poorly understood. Here, we use NMR spectroscopy to characterize the conformational dynamics of the transmembrane core of the β(2)-adrenergic receptor (β(2)AR), a prototypical GPCR. We(More)